Thursday, June 18, 2009

C1c LOCATION AND PHYSICAL FEATURES OF SAARC NATIONS (CLASS 9 AND 10 -ICSE)

PHYSCIAL REGIONS OF SOUTH ASIA


























PHYSICAL FEATURES OF SOUTH ASIA



1. a. What is land locked country? Name any two land locked SAARC countries? Mention any one structural similarity between these two countries? (3)
A nation which is surrounded by land on all sides and with no access to the sea is called a land locked country. Eg. Nepal, Bhutan
Both these counties lie in the Himalayas.

b. Mention two reasons justifying the need to include Myanmar and Afghanistan as extensions of SAARC countries.
· Physically speaking Afghanistan and Myanmar are bordering countries of India and also that Hindukush in Afghanistan is the western extent of the Great Himalayas and Arakan Yoma in Myanmar is the south-eastern extent of the Himalayas.
· Cimatically speaking both the countries experience the same climate and influence by the S.W. monsoons.
· Culturally and historically speaking both the countries have the same history and politics as the east of the sub-continent.
c) What is a sub-continent? Name the countries that make up the sub-continent of Asia.
A large part of a continent that stands distinct from the rest of the continent. India is called a subcontinent because of its vastness and it forms the main part of the sub-contninent. India along with Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Maldives make up the sub-continent.

d) Give the latitudinal and longitudinal extents of the Indian Sub-Continent?
Longitudinal Extension – 61 degree 7’E to 97 degree 25’E
Latitudinal Extension - 8 degree N to 37 degree 6’ N.

e. State the climatic significance of the Himalayas to the people of South Asia. (3)
EFFECT ON CLIMATE: These act as a guard against the northern cold winds. The Himalayas act like a natural wall that keeps the fertile Indo-Gangetic plains safe from the cold, bleak winds from the north.
The Himalayas cause the monsoon winds to shower life giving rains on the valleys and the plains to their south.
SOURCE OF RIVERS: These are the source of important rivers like the Ganga, the Indus, etc.
FOREST WEALTH: The Himalayas are covered by thick forests which are the source of numerous raw
material.

f. Give the longitudinal and latitudinal extent of South Asia. (2)
Latitude: 37 degree 6’ N to 8 degree N
Longitude : 61degree E to 97 degree 25’ E

g. Explain the objectives of SAARC? Name the countries of SAARC
* Welfare of the people and improvement in their quality of life.
* Economic growth, social progress among the countries and their people.
TWO SAARC countries: India, Pakistan. Afghanistan, Bhutan, Nelpal, Myanmar and Maldives

h. Which two countries of South Asia have low density of population? Give reason. (2)
Bhutan and Nepal. These countries have low density because of rough terrains.

i. With reference to South Asia, name: (2)
i) The smallest country - Maldieves
ii) The largest counry - India
iii) Having sea on all sides – Sri Lanka
iv) Having common border with other two countries. – Bangladesh


j. Define the following : i) Archipelago ii) lagoon iii) A land locked country iv) Estuary v) Gorge
i) ARCHIPELAGO – It is a large body of water with many islands.
ii) LAGOON – A shallow lake partly or completely separated from the open sea by a narrow strip of land such as a barrier island or a reef.Example: Chilka lake
iii) A LAND LOCKED COUNTRY: A country surrounded only by the land from all the sides having no sea boundary. e.g. Nepal and Bhutan.
iv) ESTUARY – It is a narrow deep valley at the mouth of the river where currents or tides are strong
v) GORGE – A deep narrow opening formed by the river in the upper course e.g. gorge formed by river Indus.

k. Name two water bodies that separate Asia from Europe.
Caspian Sea and Black Sea

l. Give the location and extent of Asia. What is its total area?
Asia extends from 77 degree 41 minutes north to 1 degree 16 minutes north. Its total area is around 44 million sq km.

m. State any two reasons why Asia is called the ‘land of contrasts’?
Asia is called the ‘land of contrasts’ due to the following reasons:
a) Physically this land of extremes has the highest mountain peaks including the Mount Everest. it also has the Earth’s lowest land surfaces, the shore of the Dead Sea, below sea level in Israel. The plateau of the Tibet often called the Roof of the World is the highest plateau.
b) Climatically also it has r ecorded the highest temperature (50 degree C) in Jacobabad in Pakistan and the lowest temperature (-50 degree C) in Verkhoyansk in Siberia. It receives the highest rainfall in the world (1087 cm) at Mawnsynram near Cherrapunji in North East India and also has the largest area with less than 25 cm of rainfall per annum in desert regions..

n. What do you mean by the term “Indian Subcontinent’? Give the extent of the Indian Subcontinent.
The Indian subcontinent includes India along with Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Maldives. It is a large area with well-defined boundaries and hence the term.
The Indian Subcontinent extends from 8 degree N and 37 degree 6’ latitude and 61 degree E to 97 degree 25’ E longitude, covering a large area of about 4482.3 thousand sq. km.

o. Why is it said that Indian subcontinent occupies a favourable position for international trade? Give examples to justify your answer.
Indian sub-continent is located strategically at the centre of the North-east hemisphere.
v Many trade-routes from Eastern and Western countries pass here.
v The Indian sub-continent connects SE Asia, Australia,and with Gulf countries and Europe.
v All important ocean routes pass through this sub-continent because of its very vital location, being surrounded by the Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal.

p. With examples from the sub-continent, show how physical features determine vegetation.
Climate and physical features affect the vegetation of a place. Heights of mountains determine the trees growing on them – higher slopes of the Himalays have evergreen forests; above that grass and lichen grow. Lower slopes of the Shiwaliks in the west have deciduous forests. Flat delta land of Ganga-Brahmaputra has Sunderbans or littoral forests, as the area is always covered with saline water. Flat fertile plains of Ganga is ideal for agriculture.

2. a. Define ‘daurs’. Write their one feature. (2)
The Himalayan foothills and narrow flat plains of the Himalayas are known as daurs. These are made up of fertile, alluvial soil.

b.. Give the longitudinal and latitudinal extent of South Asia. (2)
Latitude : 37 degree 6’ N and 8 degree N
Longitude: 61 degree E to 97 degree 25’E

c. What is subcontinent? Give example.. (2)
A subcontinent is a large, relatively self contained landmass forming a subdivision of a continent. A large part of a continent that stands distinct from the rest of the continent..For example: India is called a sub-continent because of varied relief features, climate, natural vegetation, and diversities among the people. India constitutes nearly 74% of South Asia. Therefore , the subcontinent is also referred to as the Indian subcontinent.


d. State three reasons why Myanmar and Afghanisthan can be considered extensions of South Asia.
* Both these share common ranges with the Indian subcontinent i.e. the Sulaiman range in
Afghanistan is the western extension of the Great Mountain Wall and the Arakan Yoma of Myanmar are the eastern extension.
· Both Afghanistan and Myanmar have similar climatic conditions as prevailing in the Indian Sub-continent.

e. What is Delta? Name two deltas in South Asia. (2)
a delta is a triangular landmass near the mouth of the river. It lies between two distributaries and is created by the deposition of silt brought by the river.
Two deltas in South Asia are ; i) Delta of the river Ganga andBrahmaputra
ii) Delta of river Godavari-Krishna.

f. What are the objectives of the SAARC? When SAARC was established?
* Promotion and strengthening of collective self-reliance among the countries of South Asia.
* Strengthening of co-operation among themselves in international forums on matter of common interest.
* Promotion of active collaboration and mutual assistance in the economic, social, cultural, technical and scientific fields.
SAARC was established in 1985.

g. Mention the salient features of South Asia.
i) South Asia accounts for more than one-fifth of world’s population and about 75 percent of its total population is rural in character.
ii) With only three percent of the world’s area but 22 percent of population, more than half of its population is engaged in subsistence farming. The physiological density of the region is over 600 and that of India 871 persons per sq. km.
iii) The population growth rates in South Asian countries are among the highest in the world.

h. What are festoons? Give an example from South Asia.
The term ‘festoons’ means a curved hanging chain of flowers, leaves, etc. to decorate elaborately.
In South-Asia, this term can be used to describe the garland-forming countries of the Indian subcontinent, viz. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and Maldives.

I Explain any four factors that affect the distribution of population in South Asia.
Ø The relief of the land – e.g. in Bhutan, the mountainous inhospitable terrain, makes the population very sparse.
Ø Fertile plains and availability of water for agriculture, e.g. the Indo-Gangetic region is thickly populated.
Ø Moderate climate in coastal areas results in thicker population. Extreme arid climate of hot deserts and cold deserts, e.g. in North Pakistan, affects population. These areas also offer less employment opportunities.
Ø Heavy rainfall and floods in parts of Bangladesh result in less population.


INDIA
LOCATION
3. a. Which parallels of latitude mark the northern and southern extent of India?
8 degree 4 ‘ N and 37 degree 6’ N

b. What is the value of the Standard Meridian of India? If the Indian cricket team is playing at Lords(England) at 9.30 am, what time will it be in India?
Longitude of 82 degree 30 ‘E
If the time in England is 9.30 a.m.,
Time will be 3 p.m. / 15.00 hrs because India’s time is always 5 ½ hours ahead from England as it is situated in Eastern side. (Hemisphere).

c) Why has India selected this value?
It lies almost in the middle of India and as such it suits us the most.

d. If we take India’s north-south extent as 8 degree N and 37 degree N latitudes:
i) How many km apart is each latitude?
ii) Calcualte in km. the north-south length of the country.
Ans. i) 37 – 8 = 29 degree
ii) The N-S length of the country is 3,214 km.

e) Which parallels of latitude mark the northern and southern extent of India?
8 degree 4’ N and 37 degree 6’ N

f) What is the value of the Standard Meridian of India?
Longitude of 82 degree 30’E.

g. Why has India selected a Standard Meridian of India with an odd value of 82 degree 30’ E? Name the state in India through which the Standard Meridian of India as well as the Tropic of Cancer pass covering the longest distance.
It lies almost in the middle of India and as such it suits us the most.
Madhya Pradesh

h. In which hemisphere does India lie with reference to Prime Meridian?
India lies in the Eastern Hemisphere with reference to Prime Meridian.

i. What is the total area of India?
32,87,263 sq km is the total area of India.

j. State the value of the angle which the Standard Meridian of India makes with the Prime Meridian. Show by calculations the time lag between I.S.T. and G.M.T.
Value of angle is 82 1/2 degree E.
Calculation:
1 degree = 4 mins
Time taken for 1 degreee = 4 mins
Time taken for 82.5 degree = 4 X 82.5
= 330 mins
60 mins = 1 hour
330 mins = 5 and half hours.
So total time lag is 5 and half hours.

k. State the latitudinal and longitudinal extension of India. Which important line of longitude passes the middle of India? Also state which important latitude passes through the middle of India. What is the importance of its central location? Give two points (2)
* LATITUDE : 8 degree 4’ N to 37 degree 18’ N
LONGITUDE: 68 degree 7’ to 97 degree 25’ E
· The longitude of 82 degree 30’ E passes through the middle of India and is taken as the Standard Time Meridian of India.
· The Tropic of Cancer (23 ½ degree N) is an important line of latitude passes through the middle of India.
IMPORTANCE:
* India’s geographical location is favourably important for international trade.
** Due to its central location in the Eastern Hemisphere India lies on the major trade routes.

l. By what name is the parallel of latitude 23 degree 30’ N known? Name the zones or belts into which it divides India almost equally.
Tropic of Cancer. It divides India into two Tropical zone and the subtropical zone.

m. Along which meridian of India is the Indian Standard Time calculated? If the Indian Cricket Team is playing at Lords (England) at 9.30 am, what time will be it in India? Name the two other countries which also base their standard time as this meridian.
Indian Standard Time is calculated on the basis of 82 ½ degree E longitiude.
It the time in England is 9.30 a.m.
Time in India will be 3.00 p.m./15:00 hrs because India’s time is always 5 ½ hours ahead from England as it is situated in Eastern side (Hemisphere).
Nepal and Sri Lanka are the other two countries which also base their standard time as this meridian.

n. What is a subcontinent? Give example. (2)
A subcontinent is a large, relatively self contained landmass forming a subdivision of a continent. A large part of a continent that stands distinct from the rest of the continent..For example: India is called a sub-continent because of varied relief features, climate, natural vegetation, and diversities among the people. India constitutes nearly 74% of South Asia. Therefore , the subcontinent is also referred to as the Indian subcontinent.

o. Which is the southern most tip of India?
Indira Point in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands


p. Write the names of the diverse land features of India. or Write the names of the diverse land features of India.
· The Himalayan Mountains
· The Great Plains of North
· The Peninsular Plateau
· The Coastal Plains
· The Islands.
q. Name the States of India which touch the borders of Nepal.
Uttarakhand (Uttaranchal), Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Sikkim, West Bengal

r. Name the northern most and the southern most points of India.
Indira Col and Indira Point respectively.



HIMALAYAS

4. A. Himalayas are the source of northern rivers. Justify the statement by giving two examples.
* The Himalayas create barrier before the south west monsoons which causes precipitation in the
form of rain or snow.
* The rain water adds to the water of rivers and melting of snow is also the source of water.
* Example: Rivers Indus, Ganga, Brahamaputra

b. State the importance of the Himalayas with regard to the race and occupation of the people of South Asia.
* The severity of the cold climate and rugged terrain have resulted in typical short statured, high cheek boned, small eyes and fair complexioned people belonging to the Mongoloid race.
* As the Himalayas offer good pastures on its hill-slopes, cattle- rearing is an important occupation.
* Agriculture is another important activity of the people of South Asia. This is because of fertile plains and sufficient water. The moisture of the South-West monsoon is captured by the mountain barrier.
* By virtue of their scentic beauty and healthy environment, the Himalayan ranges have developed several tourist spots and tourism offers a major economic activity in the region.

c. Write any three features of Himadri. (3)
* It makes up the highest part of the Himalayas.
* The average elevation is more than 6000 m.
* Mount Everest *8848 m), the highest peak in the world is located here.

d. State the climatic significance of the Himalayas to the people of South Asia. (3)
EFFECT ON CLIMATE: These act as a guard against the northern cold winds. The Himalayas act like a natural wall that keeps the fertile Indo-Gangetic plains safe from the cold, bleak winds from the north.
The Himalayas cause the monsoon winds to shower life giving rains on the valleys and the plains to their south.
SOURCE OF RIVERS: These are the source of important rivers like the Ganga, the Indus, etc.
FOREST WEALTH: The Himalayas are covered by thick forests which are the source of numerous raw material.

OTHER SIGNIFICANCE OF HIMALAYAS:
TOURISM: The Himalayas are known for beautiful valleys and tourist spots which help in earning foreign exchange.
HYDROELECTRICITY: Dams can be constructed across the Himalayan rivers to generate Hydroelectricity..

e. With reference to the Himadri, answer the following: (2)
i) Name two mountain peaks included in this range.
Mount Everest (8848 m)
Kanchenjunga (8598m)

ii) Name two passes of this range.
Burzil Pass in Jammu and Kashmir
Skipkila Pass in Himachal Pradesh

iii. Name two important glaciers of Himadri.
The Gangotri and the Yamnotri

iv. What is the height of Himadri?
Its height is 6,000m.

f. Explain the impact of the Himalayas on the occupation of the people. or Mention two favourable effects of the Himalayas on the economy of India.(3)
* The rivers originating from the Himalayas are responsible for the formation of plains. These plains provide fertile alluvial soil. So most of the people are engaged in agriculture.
* Slopes of Himalayas have been terraced for cultivation of fruits, food crops and plantation crops.
* The Himalayan ranges are rich in forest resources and pastures. So most of the people are engaged in lumbering and animal rearing.
* Rivers flowing from Himalayas has a great potential to generate hydroelectricity.

g. Name the four mountain ranges radiating from the Pamir Knot. (2)
Hindukush, Sulaiman range, Karakoram and Tienshan range and Zaskar

h. Name two passes of middle Himalayas.
The Pir Panjal and Golabghar are two important passes of middle Himalayas.

i. Write any two features of the Shiwaliks.
· The average elevation is less than 1200 m.
· It is made up of unconsolidated sediments.
j. Name the second highest peak in the world.
K2

K. Between which two ranges Himachal is situated. Write any two of its important features.
Himachal is situated between Shiwaliks in the South and Himadri in the North.
Most of the hill stations like Shimla, Mussoorie, Nainital, Darjeeling etc. lie here.
It extends over an average width of 50 km and have an altitude of 3750 to 4,500 km.
.

l. Name the three ranges of the Himalayas with one feature of each range. Write one feature of these ranges.(3)
* THE HIMADRI (Greater Himalayas): It makes up the highest part of the Himalayas.
* THE HIMACHAL (Lesser Himalayas): It has an average height of 4,500 m.
* THE SHIWALIKS ( Outer Himalayas): It has an average elevation of 1,200 m.
THE HIMADRI: It is the loftiest of all. All the high peaks belong to this range.
THE HIMACHAL : all the important hill stations such as Dalhousie, Dharamsala, Shimla belong to this range.
THE SHIWALIKS: It is the outermost and lowest range. It is made of fluvial deposits.


m. Mention three differences between the Western Himalayas and the Eastern Himalayas. (3)
* The Western Himalays lie in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. The Eastern Himalayas lie in West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and Bhutan.
* Western part of the Himalayas is very high. Eastern part of the Himalayas in of medium height.
* The major rivers of the Western Himalayas- Indus and Sutlej – flow into Arabian Sea. The major rivers of the Eastern Himalayas- Brahmaputra flows into the Bay of Bengal.
* The Western Himalayas get less rainfall. The Eastern Himalayas get more rainfall.
* Western Himalayas consist of mountain ranges of Hindukush, Sulaiman and Kirthar. The Patkai Bum, Naga Hills, Mizo hills, etc., are the parts of Eastern Himalayas.
* These hill ranges pass through the countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Eastern Himalayas run through India and Myanmar
* Western Himalayas have two important passes – Khyber pass, Bolan Pass. Eastern Himalayas are famous for its sandstone and slate..

n. Millions of years ago what covered Himalayas and the Great Plains?
Tethys sea covered the Himalayas and The Great Plains.

o.. Name the four mountain ranges radiating from the Pamir Knot. (2)
* Hindukush Range * Karakoram Range * Sulaiman Range * Tienshan Range

p. Give the length and breadth of the Himalayas.
The Himalayas are about 2500 km long and from 250 km to 400 km broad.

q. Name the main peaks of the Himalayas.
Mt. Everest, Kanchenjunga, Nanga Parbat, Nanda Devi, and Namcha barwa.

r. Which is the outermost range of the Himalayas? Write any three features of that range.
The Shiwalik is the outermost range of the Himalayas and is also known as the ‘Outer Himalayas’.
The Shiwalik range runs almost parallel to the leser Himalayas from the Potwar plateau to the Brahamaputra valley.
It has an average height of les than 1200 m and average width of 30 km.
There are broad longitudinal valleys in the Shiwaliks known as duns. Dehra Dun is the best example of such a plain which is 75 km long and 15-20 ms wide. Kota, Patli, and Chauk hamba are other duns in Uttar Pradesh.
s. Name the hills that make up the Purvanchal Ranges in India.
The hills that make up the Purvanchal Ranges in India are the Patkoi Bum, Garo-Khasi, Jaintia Hills, Lushai Hills , Mizo and Naga Hills.

t. Why are the Himalayas known as Tethys Himalayas also?
The Himalayas are fold mountains said to have risen from the sediments of the Tethys sea-floor due to earth-movements. Since these mountains originated from the Tethys Sea, they are also called Tethys Himalayas.

DECCAN PLATEAU
4. a. How was the Deccan Plateau formed? Name two important ranges that run through it and mention an important feature of this region. State the significance of the Plateau region to the people of India.
Deccan Pleateau was formed due to the breaking and drifting of the Gondwana land. It is formed as a result of cooling of thick horizontal lava sheets and is a dormant vocano.
The Vindhyas, the Satpuras, Rajmahal Hills, the Mahadeo Hills are some of the ranges that run through Deccan Plateau.
The Triangular Deccan Plateau is India’s largest and its height is between 800 to 3000m and are situated between the Eastern and Western Ghats.

· It is made up of hard crystalline igneous rocks. These rocks contain a very rich variety of minerals.
· The highlands of the plateau are covered with different types of of forests which provide a large
variety of forest products.
The swift flowing rivers flowing through the plateau are ideal for production of hydro-electricity.
Much of it has black lava soil good for crops like cotton, sugar-cane and tobacco.

b. Name the oldest mountain range in India, stating its highest peak?
The oldest mountain range in India – Aravallis. Its highest peak is Gurushikhar.

c. What is significance of the Peninsualr Plateau? (3)
* The Peninsualr Plateau is rich in useful minerals like manganese, iron ore, bauxite and gold , etc
* Its black soil is useful for growing cotton and sugarcane while laterite soil prove useful for tea, rubber, and coffee plantations.
· Valuable varieties of wood is provided by the Western Ghats.
The hill stations like Ooty, Panchmarhi, are the source of attraction for tourists

d. Name any three hill ranges lying on the Indian Plateau. (3)
Vindhya, Satpura, Maikal ranges

e.. How was the Deccan Plateau formed? State the significance of the Plateau region to the people of India. Name the longest river of Deccan Plateau.
Deccan Pleateau was formed due to the breaking and drifting of the Gondwana land.
* These rocks contain a very rich variety of minerals.
* The highlands of the plateau are covered with different types of of forests which provide a large
variety of forest products.

Godavari is the longest river of Deccan Plateau

f. State three reasons for the importance of the Peninsualr Plateau. (3)
* Many rivers originate from this plateau.
* the plateau is very rich in mineral wealth.
* black cotton soil of the Deccan Plateau is extremely useful for growing cotton and sugarcane.

g. Where is ChhotaNagpur Plateau located? What is its economic importance? What is its origin?
Chhota Nagpur Plateau is located in Jharkhand , east of Bundelkhand and ends up in Rajmahal Hills east.
It is a store-house of coal, iron-ore, mica, etc which support the steel industries and engineering industries.
Its origin due to intense volcanic activity which occurred millions of years ago and eruption of lava through fissures being solidified.

h. Which is the largest unit of the Peninsular Plateau of India?
The Deccan Plateau is the largest unit of the Peninsualr Plateau.

I . Where is Malwa Plateau located? Name the rivers that drain it. What is it made up of?
Malwa Plateau is located between the Aravallis and the Vindhyas. The Aravallis lie to its west and the Vindhyas lie to its south.
Chambal, Sind and Betwa are the rivers that drain it.
They were formed by solidified molter lava. The flat top is forested and broken by ravines.


RIVERS
5. a. Mention any three characteristics of Brahamputra river. By what name is it known in Tibet and Bangladesh? Name its tributaries.(3)
* It flows only in northern India.
* It passes through three countries i.e. Tibet, India, Bangladesh
* It causes disastrous floods.
In Tibet, it is known as Tsang Po and in Bangladesh , is is known as Jamuna.
Tista, Subansiri, Barali, Manas, Buri, Dihang are tributaries of Brahamaputra.

b. Which is the longest river of India? Name the source of the river Ganga. Where does this river enter the plains? Name any two tributaries of Ganga.
River Ganga is the longest river of India.
Gangotri glacier is the source of river Ganga. The river enters the plains near Haridwar river.
Two tributaries of Ganga are Gomati and Gandak.

c. Why most of the peninsular rivers have straight and linear courses? (3)
* Due to gentle slope, the intensity of erosional activity is less.
* The hard rock bed and lack of silt and sand does not allow meandering.
* During most of the year they have less water.

d. Distinguish between the rivers of the North Plains and those of Peninsular India. (Southern India)
North Indian rivers originate from the lofty Himalayan ranges. Rivers of Peninsular India originate from Peninsular Plateau.
Rivers of North Plains have large basins. Rivers of Peninsular India have small basins.
Rivers of North Plains are perennial in nature. They are fed by Glaciers. Rivers of Peninsular India are non-perennial. They are mainly fed by rain.
Rivers of Northern Plains are suitable for navigation as they flow gently in the plains whereas rivers of Peninsular India are not suitable for navigation as they flow swiftly over the plateaus and highlands.

e. Himalayas are the source of northern rivers. Justify the statement by giving two examples.
* The Himalayas create barrier before the south west monsoons which causes precipitation in the form of rain or snow.
· The rain water adds to the water of rivers and melting of snow is also the source of water.
· Example: Rivers Indus, Ganga, Brahamaputra

f. Distinguish between the rivers of the North Indian Plains and those of Peninsular India.
* Rivers of North India are much longer as compared to those of Peninsular India.
* Rivers of North India are good for irrigation where as those of peninsular India are less suitable
as they flow through hard rocky terrain.
* Rivers of North India form large deltas whereas those of Peninsular India form smaller deltas.

g.. State two reasons why the rivers of the Deccan Plateau are non-perennial and non-navigable.
* They are non-perennial as they receive water only from rainfall and water flows in these rivers in
rainy seasons only.
* Since they are rainfed rivers, they become dry in the summers.

The rivers of Deccan Plateau are non-navigable because
they flow in comparatively shallow valleys
This area has a rugged topography and the rivers are swift flowing.
The rivers have a number of waterfalls in them.

h. Name a river of the Peninsualr Plateau that does not form a delta.
Narmada river does not form a delta.

i. Name the river which divides Peninsualr Plateau into two parts. Name the parts also.
The Narmada river divides the Peninsualr Plateau into two parts. i.e. the Malwa Plateau and the Deccan Plateau.

j. What is braided river? Give an example.
A river which is divided into a number of converging and diverging channels separated by sand bars and islands is known as braided stream. For example, Brahmaputra

k. Name the source of the river Ganga. Where does this river enter the plains?
The source of the river Ganga is Goumukh., Gangotri glacier. This river enters Haridwar.

l. What are doabs?
The land between two rivers is called doab.

m. name five rivers which make up Punjab-Haryana Plain.
The Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab, and the Jhelum.

n. Name the rivers which the drain the Malwa Plateau.
Chambal and its tributaries like the Kali, Sindh, and Parbati.

o. Name four rivers forming deltas on eastern coastal plain.
Krishna, Kaveri, Godavari and Mahanadi.

p. What are the lengths of the river India and the river Ganga?
River Indus – 2900 km River Ganga: 2500 km

q. Which river is known for creating havoc of floods in Assam and Bangladesh? Why is the river prone to floods?
The river Brahamaputra is known for creating havoc of floods in Assam and Bangladesh.
The river is prone to floods because it has braided stream.

r. With reference to the Indus River, answer the following:
i. Name its source. What is its total length?
The Indus originates from the glaciers of the Kailas Range in Western Tibet. The total length of Indus river is 2,880 km.
ii. Name the treaty signed on the sharing of its water between India and Pakistan.
India and Pakistan signed The Indus Water Treaty on the sharing of its water.

s. One of the most important rivers of the Ganga drainage system is the Ganga. With reference to it , answer the following:
i. Where does it originate? Where does it enter the plains?
Ganga originates as Bhagirathi from the Gangotri glacier in Uttar Kashi district of Uttarkhand. It enters Haridwar.
ii. From where does it get its name?
The river acquires its name after its headstreams Alaknanda and Bhagirathi unite at Devaprayag.

t. What is a Delta? Name two deltas in South Asia.
A low lying area found at the mouth of a river and formed of deposits of alluvium.
Ganga-Brahamaputra and Krishna delta are two deltas of South Asia.

u. Briefly give the characteristics of the forests that flourish in the delta of the River Ganga.
The forest is called mangrove forest. This forest is flooded by the tides of the sea, the trees bend down branches into the salt water of the sea, which enable them to remain fixed. They have breathing roots.

v. Mention two features of the east-flowing Peninsular rivers.
· They have their source in the Western Ghats.
· They are non-perennial since they are rain-fed.
· They are not navigable.

w. Which are the two major waterfalls in India? What is their importance?
The Jog Waterfalls and the Shiva Samudra are two major waterfalls They are source of Hydro Electric Power in South India.

x. Into how many drainage systems can the rivers of Peninsular India be grouped? Which is the longest river here and where does it rise?
Rivers of Peninsular India can be grouped into East fllowing towards Bay of Bengal and West flowing towards Arabian, towards Ganga, i.e. flowing North from the Vindhyas, Godavari, rising in the Western Ghats.

PLAINS.

6. a. Mention three benefits of the long coastline of India. Or What is the significance of the coastal plains?
# The coastline of India is uniform and regular, little indented by large inlets. The West Coast contains a few natural harbours like Mumbai, Marmagao, Cochin, etc
# Large parts of the coastal plains are covered with fertile plains on which different crops are grown.
# The back waters and lagoons are ideal for fishing.
# Sea beaches serve as tourist attraction, thus earning foreign exchange.
# The coastal plains have been centres of commerce since ancient times. Various factories and forts of the Dutch, Portuguese were established on the coast.
#Petroleum in sea beds can be drilled out.
# The Kerala coast has abundant deposits of monazite and the off shore areas of Mumabi have petroleum deposits in abundance

b. Distinguish between west coastal plain and east coastal plain. Or Differentiate between the Eastern Coast and the Western Coast.(3)

West Coastal Plain is a narrow and uneven plain with an average width of 65 km. East Coastal Plain is comparatively broader and more level plain with an average width of 80 -100 km.
There are several estuaries lagoons especially in the southern part of West Coastal Plain. Lagoons are comparatively less in East Coastal Plain. It has fertile deltas of rivers.
The western plain has indented coast which supports many ports. The eastern plain has more or less a straight coast where good ports are lacking.
Western coast gets more rainfall than the Eastern Coast of India. Eastern coast gets less rainfall . (100-125cm)
West Coastal Plain lies between Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. East Coastal Plain lies between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal.
West Coastal Plain is known as the Konkan Coast in Maharashtra and Goa, Kanara Coast in Karnataka and Malabar Coast in Kerala. East Coastal Plain is known as the Northern Circars in the north and Coromandel Coast in the south.

c. Which is the largest unit of the Great Plain of India.
The Ganga Plain.

d. What is the Konkan region?
The region extending from Goa and Daman is called the Konkan region.

e. What is the extent of the West Coast of India? What are the different names given to different parts of this coast?
The West Coast of India extends from River Narmada in the north to Kanyakumari in south.
In Kerala, it is known as Malabar Coast, in Karnataka, it is known as Kanara coast, in Goa and Maharashtra, it is known as Konkan Coast.
.

WESTERN AND EASTERN GHATS

7. a. Distinguish between the Western and Eastern Ghats. (2)
Western Ghats are higher. The average height is between 900 to 1100 m. The highest peak in the Western Ghats is Anaimudi with a height of 2,696 m. Eastern Ghats are lower with average height of 600m. The highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is Mahendragiri with a height of 1500 m.
The Western Ghats are continuous. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous. They are broken.
Western Ghats are closer to the sea. Eastern Ghats are not closer to the sea. There are wider plains in between the Eastern Ghats and the sea.
Western Ghats rise steeply from the west coast. Eastern Ghats rise gently from the east coast.
All the rivers of the Deccan Plateau rise to the Western Ghats. No river originates from the Eastern Ghats.The rivers cut valleys through Eastern Ghats.
Western Ghats are situated perpendicularly to the South-West Monsoon winds, consequently the heavy rainfall in the monsoon, been experienced. Eastern Ghats are parallel to the South-West Monsoon winds and so do not cause for the rainfall in the monsoon season.
The Western Ghats receive rainfall in summer only, whereas the Eastern Ghats get rainfall both in winter and summer.

OCCUPATION

8. a. What is the main occupation of the people of India? (2)
Agriculture

b. Mention two problems associated with agriculture in India. (2)
* OVERDEPENDENT ON NATURE: Indian agriculture is mainly dependent on monsoons. If there is heavy rain, it leads to floods and if there is less rain it leads to drought.
* OLD TECHNOLOGY AND MORE PRESSURE ON LAND: Our farmers still use old implements. They are very poor and cannot afford modern technology and implements. Secondly, 67% of our population is directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture.

c. What is subsistence agriculture?
Farming in which the main production is consumed by the farmer’s household.


ISLANDS

9. a. Mention any three features of the island group of India.
* The Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep island are two island groups of India.
* The Andaman and Nicobar islands are made up of tertiary sandstone, limestone and shale.
* Lakshadweep islands are coral islands.

b. With reference to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, answer the following:
i. Where are they situated?
They are situated in Bay of Bengal.
ii. What is the other name of these islands? Why are they called so?
They are called Bay Islands. They are called so because they are located in the Bay of Bengal.
iii. Name the highest peak of these islands.
Saddle Peak in North Andaman is the highest peak.

c. With reference to the Lakshadweep Islands, answer the following:
i. Where are they situated?
They are situated in the Arabian Sea.
ii. How were they formed?
They have been formed through deposition of the dead bodies of micro-organisms like corals over a long period of time.

LAGOONS:
10. a. What is a lagoon? give an example.
It is a salt water lake on the coast. e.g. chilka.


11. NAME THEM:
a. Name the neighbour countries of India.
Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Sri Lanka.

b. Name any two harbours on the east coast of peninsular India.
Chennai and Vishakhapatnam

c. Name any two important inlets in the Gujarat region of the west coast strip.
The Gulf of Kachchh and The Gulf of Cambay are two important inlets in the Gujarat region of the west coast strip.

d. Name the highest peak of the Western Ghats.
Anaimundi (2695 m)

e. Name the highest peak in the Eastern Ghats.
Mahendragiri is the highest peak in the Eastern Ghats.

f. Name the highest plateau of Indian Union.
The Ladakh Plateau

g. Name the hills which form the watershed between India and Myanmar.
Patkai Bum and Naga Hills.

h. Name the hill of Arunachal Pradesh which forms the international boundary between Indian and Myanamar.
Patkai Bum.

i. Name the hill which forms boundary between Manipur and Myanmar.
The Manipur Hills

j. Name two salt lakes of Rajasthan Plain.
The Sambhar and the Diwana.

k. Name the hills that make up the Purvanchal Ranges in India.
The hills that make up the Purvanchal Ranges in India are the Patkoi Bum, Garo-Khasi. Jaintia Hills, Lushai Hills, Mizo and Naga Hills.

12. GIVE REASONS.
a. The deltas on the east coast are not suitable for harbours.
The deltas on the east coast are not suitable for harbours because their mouths are full of silt.

b. The Peninsular rivers are not navigable.
The Peninsualr rivers are marked by a number of waterfalls which are being harnessed for the production of hydroelectricity. These rivers have also been impounded for irrigation and hydroelectric power . Moreover, these rivers are non-perrenial.

c. The Brahmaputra river is called the ‘Red River’.
Because during the floods, the water of the Brahmaputra looks reddish in colour after mixing with the Red soil of Assam.

d. The northern frontier of India is practically an impossible barrier.
Because the valleys formed by the great ranges of this mountain run parallel to the ranges, i.e. from west to east. This fact has made the Himalayas a huge barrier, which is practically impossible to cross.

e. The Deccan system of rivers is unsuitable for navigation.
* Because most of the peninsular rivers are seasonal in character due to which they flow only when they are fed by the monsoon rains.
* Since this area has a rugged topography, the rivers are swift flowing.
* The rivers have a number of waterfalls in them, thus, making navigation difficult.

f. The peninsular plateau of India is considered to be part of Gondwana hundreds of millions years ago.
The southern plateau of India is as ancient as the global continent of Pangea. Pangea had two parts- its northern part was known as Angaraland and its southern part as Gondwana land. The peninsular plateau of India was a part of the southern continent, i.e. Gondwana land which broke away 250 million years ago.

g. The Peninsular Plateau of India is rich in mineral resources.
The Peninsular Plateau of India is rich in mineral resources as it is made up of hard and crystalline igneous rocks.

h. Most of the rivers in South India flow into the Bay of Bengal.
Most of the rivers in South India rises in the western Ghats. As the slope of the Western Ghats is from west to east , so the rivers flow into Bay of Bengal.

i. The delta region of the Indus is largely a wasteland.
The delta region of the Indus is largely a wasteland because it is being often flooded with brackish water.

j. The coromandel coast receive most of its rainfall during winter season.
This is because its location is on the windward side of the Eastern Ghats.

k. Destruction of vegetation cover increases the soil erosion.
Vegetation cover protects the soil from erosion as the roots of the trees and plants hold the soil particles together and strengthen the soil.

l. The Brahmaputra is a braided river.
The Brahmaputra which rises in Tibet crosses a long mountainous area and carries a lot of sediments with it. When it enters the plain, it slows down and starts depositing its load in its river channel causing it to split into two or three channels forming islands in its course. Thus, it appears to form braids.

m. Damodar is called the Sorrow of Bengal.
Damodar is called the sorrow of Bengal because it gets flooded frequently and causes widespread destruction of lives and property.

o. The rivers of the Indus-Ganga plain are perennial.
Because these are the Himalayan rivers which do not depend for their supply of water on monsoon rains, but are fed all the year round by the melting snow of the Himalayas.

p. In the coastal strips of the Southern India, there are regions of good soils.
Along the eastern coastal strip, the south Indian rivers carry much water, especially, during rainy season and form large deltas before they empty their water in the sea. Thus, these deltas prove to be areas of fertile soil.

q. The Narmada and the Tapi do not form deltas.
Only sluggish rivers which carry a lot of sediments, form a delta. Such rivers travel a long distance from their origin to the mouth. In case of the Narmada and Tapi, such conditions whichare pre-requisites for the formation of delta, are not available. Their distance from origin to the Arabian Sea is very small and they do not carry much sediment also. that is why they do not form deltas, rather they form estuaries.

r. The northern plains of India are one of the most densely populated regions of the world.
The deep alluvial fertile soil and assured source of water through perennial rivers have made this plain a rich agricultural land. This source of food has made this plain one of the most densely populated regions of the world. The level and flat land suitable for transportation has also attracted population.

s. The rivers of South India are less suitable for the irrigation than the rivers of north India.
The rivers of South India are non-perennial, as been fed by rainwater and so they dry up after rainy seasons, while the rivers of north India are perennial been fed by glaciers. Therefore, the rivers of South India are less suitable for the irrigational purpose throughout the year, than the rivers of north India.

t. Less land is available for agriculture on the West Coast than on the East Coast.
On the Western coast , there are less rivers than the eastern coast. It has two major rivers, Narmada and Tapi which have no delta at their meeting point to the sea at the western coast. On the eastern coast , there are number of major rivers like Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Mahanadi having the delta as well as a great extent of alluvial formation at their meeting points with the sea.
West coast is also narrow coast land whereas Eastern Ghats are further from the East coast . These Eastern Ghats are also broken and therefore it has larger land for cultivation.

u. The Ganga is navigable from its mouth upto Allahabad.
The Ganga rises from the Gangotri glacier of the Great Himalayas. The Tributaries of the river Ganga join it in its course through northern plains. the main right bank tributary Yamuna joins it at Allahabad. Hence, it is navigable from its mouth right upto Allahabad.

v. The rivers of the Deccan Plateau are non-perennial and non-navigable.
The rivers of the Deccan Plateau are non-perennial and non-navigable because they are fed by only the rainwater and been dried u after the rainy season. Furthermore, those rives flow swiftly through steep slopes, and so they are non-navigable, too.
w. Access through the Western Ghats is difficult.
Access through the Western Ghats is difficult because the hills use to rise steeply from the coastal plain.
x. The Deccan Plateau is highly dissected one.
The Deccan Plateau is dissected by many rivers like Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, etc.. The region is highly eroded with deep ravines scarring the landscape.

y. The Western Ghats are covered by thick evergreen forests while the Eastern Ghats are covered by deciduous type forests.
The Western Ghats, having more altitude than the Eastern Ghats , are standing on the wind ward side to the monsoon, and consequently gets a considerable amount of rainfall, which causes of the thicker evergreen forests. But the eastern sides does not get the great content of rainfall as it is not having the comparable higher altitude to winder the south-west monsoon. Only the retreting north-east monsoon cause a meager quantity of rainfall as it contains the lesser water-vapour than its south-west counterpart. So, the eastern coast is mainly covered with deciduous type of forests. It is well-known that the heavier rainfall will cause move evergreen forests rather than the deciduous type of forests.
z. The Rann of Kutch is not cultivated.
Rann of Kutch is a tidal flat which cannot be cultivated. It is salty and marshy as it was once a shallow part of the sea.
13.
a. The most of the south Indian rivers flow into the Bay of Bengal.
The most of the south Indian rivers flow into the Bay of Bengal because Deccan Plateau slopes from west to east.

b. Luni river in Rajasthan does not meet the sea.
River Luni which rises in the Aravallis near Jaipur, traverses the desert which is a low rainfall
region with high temperatures. Hence, it carries less water and has no tributaries. When it reachers the marshy region of Rann of Kachchh, it cannot cross it to meet the Arabian Sea, but ends its course there itself.

c. The big rivers of Peninsular India flow from west to east.
Peninsular India slopes from west to east as the lava from the fissure-erruptions occurring in the west flowed towards the east. The Western Ghats, the highest mountains in the Peninsula, also lie in its west. All the rivers, therefore, rising from the Western Ghats flow towards the east.


PAKISTAN
14. a. Name any two countries which have a land border with Pakistan. (2)
Ans:- India, Iran, China and Afghanisthan.

b. . State the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of Pakistan. Why is the eastern region of Pakistan more thickly populated than the western region?
Pakistan is located in the north-west of the sub-continent between 24 degree N and 37 degree N latitudes and 61 degree E to 75 degree E longititudes.
· The eastern region of Pakistan is drained by river Indus and its tributaries and is very fertile. So the region is more thickly populated whereas western region is a desert devoid of any rain or vegetation.
· Most of the Industries are also located in eastern region, so employment opportunities are sufficient

c. Give three reasons why River Indus is considered the lifeline of Pakistan.
* The Indus plain which covers the eastern part of Pakistan is made up of rich alluvial soil brought down by the river Indus.
* The agricultural success of Pakistan lies in the irrigation projects that draws water from the Indus and its tributaries.
Water of the river Indus is also being used for power production which is basic input for industry and other economic activities.

d. With reference to Pakistan, name any two.
i) Plateaus - The Baluchistan Plateau and The Potwar Plateau
ii) Deserts - Thar desert
iii) Himalayan ranges - Sulaiman and Kirthar range
iv. Two neighbouring countries – India. Afghanistan
v) Two important crops - Wheat, Rice, cotton, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Oilseeds.
vi) Capital - Islamabad
vii) Two important crops - Cotton and Wheat (Grown in Punjab and Sindh)
viii. Important pass - - Bolan Pass

e. Which region of Pakistan is thickly populated? Give reason. (2)
Eastern region of Pakistan is thickly populated as it is made up of rich alluvial soil. This rich soil is base for agriculture.

f. Mention any three features of the Thar desert. (3)
* It is located in south-eastern Pakistan.
* Much of it is covered with sand.
* Agricultue is possible because of the Indus river.

h. With reference to the Indus river, answer the following questions: (2)
i) name its source
ii) Name the treaty signed on the sharing of its water between India and Pakistan.
iii) Name a multipurpose project on River Indus. Two advantages of this project.
iv) Any two features of River Indus.
v) Major tributaries
SOURCE – The Indus originates from theglaciers of the Kailas range in western Tibet.
TREATY – The Indus Water Treaty
MULTI-PURPOSE PROJECT: Terbela dam has been constructed on river Indus.
· This multi-purpose project helps in controlling floods and for irrigation purposes.
· The project provides electricity.
FEATURES OF RIVER INDUS:
* The river Indus is about 2900 km in length.
* It is perennial river but much of its water is lost as it flows through the Thar desert.
MAJOR TRIBUTARIES: Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Sutlej

i. Which are the four physical divisions into which Pakistan has been divided?
· The Northern and Western Highlands
· The Baluchistan Plateau
· The Indus Plain
· The Thar Desert

j. Where is Sui located? Why is it important?
Sui is located in Baluchistan. It is important for its great amount of natural gas deposits.

k Compare the population of Pakistan and Bangladesh. Which country has high density of population?
Give two reasons. (3)
POPULATION OF PAKISTAN : 156.5 million with population density 188 person per sq. km.
POPULATION OF BANGLADESH: 136.44 million. It has a population density of 845 person per sq. km.
REASON: * Pakistan is entirely Highlands, Plateau, Plain and desert.
* Bangladesh is a plain country with fertile soil.

l. Why is the vegetation in Pakistan scanty?
* LOW RAINFALL: Most parts of Pakistan receives low rainfall and has semi arid climate.
* SOIL: Most parts of Pakistan has sandy soil

m. State two ways in which the rivers of Pakistan are useful to the people of the country. (2)
In a semi-arid country, Indus and its tributaries are the only source of perennial water for agricultural purpose. Hence the Indus Plain is the only region where cash-crops and food-crops can be grown for the people.
Indus river having a long course through a plain serves as a major means of navigation. Agricultural, industrial commodities can be transported down the river to Karachi port for export.
Indus river has been harnessed for generation of hydel power at Tarbela to supply power to the industries.
Permanent supply of water also has helped the growth of dense population and towns and cities.
n. Which part of Pakistan is densely populated?
ANS: Eastern part of Pakistan.

o) Why is Pakistan been called ‘Gift of the Indus’? or To what agricultural success of Pakistan might be attributed?
Pakistan is often been called as the “Gift of the Indus” because
Pakistan’s agricultural success is only due to the irrigation facilities provided by the river Indus and its tributaries.Without the river Indus, it would have been a desert.
Multipurpose projects are built on river Indus which serve in manifold purposes.
It also provides water for domestic and industrial purposes.

p. Why does Pakistan receive some winter rain?
Pakistan receives some winter rain because of the western cyclonic disturbances coming from the Mediterranean Sea.

q. Name any two major ranges of Pakistan. Name a pass which lies between Sulaiman and Kirthar Range.
Sulaiman Range and Kirthan Range are two major ranges of Pakistan.
Bolan Pass lies between Sulaiman and Kirthar Range.

r. Name a pass which connects Pakistan with Afghanistan.
Khyber pass connects Pakistan with Afghanistan.

s. Name the range which separates Pakistan from Afghanistan.
Sulaiman range separates Pakistan from Afthanistan.

q. Mention three differences between the Deccan Plateau and the Baluchistan Plateau. (3) Baluchistan Plateau is located in the south-west of Pakistan. Deccan Plateau is located in the south of India.
Most of the Baluchistan plateau is dry and rocky and has little vegetation. Deccan Plateau receives good amount of rainfall and has vegetation.
Baluchistan plateau has low density of population. Deccan Plateau is densly populated
The Baluchistan plateau is outside the influence of the monsoons. The Deccan plateau receives rain from the South-West monsoon.
Baluchistan Plateau is a arid rocky plateau having a number of salt lakes and marshes. Deccan Plateau is composed of lava sheets, displaying flat and steep hills, ridges and shallow, broad valleys.

15.a. Which are the two important plateaus of Pakistan? What is their significance?
The Baluchistan Plateau and the Potwar Plateau are two most important plateaus of Pakistan.
The significance of these plateaus are:
Large deposits of natural gas have been found in the Baluchistan.
The plateaus are also the main source of metallic ores.
The Potwar plateau is the store house of mineral oil.

b. Name the country where the Baluchistan plaeau is located. Write its features. What is the main occupation of the people of this region?
Baluchistan Plateau is located in the south-west of Pakistan.
· Most of the plateau is a desert area with erosion, sand dunes and sand stand storms. It has little plant life.
· It is a rich source of minerals
OCCUPATION OF BALUCHISTAN REGION: Most of the plateau of Baluchistan is dry and rocky so the vegetation consists of rough grasses, bushes and shrubs. So the main occupation of the people is sheep and goat rearing.

c. What is the importance of Potwar Plateau?
Potwar Plateau is the store house of mineral oil.

d. Mention two important crops of Pakistan. Mention one geographical reason explaining why these are the main crops. Cotton and wheat are the two important cash crops of Pakistan because these two crops need less water as compare to other crops like sugarcane and rice.

e. What is the main occupation of the people of Pakistan living in Indus Plain?
The Indus plain covers the eastern part of Pakistan. It is made up of rich alluvial soil. So agriculture is the main occupation.

f. What is the main occupation of the people living in southern-eastern Pakistan?
The Thar Desert is located in southern-eastern Pakistan. Much of it is covered with sand and so nomadic pastoral are found. Subsistence agriculture is also practiced in some parts.

g. Pakistan has diverse climatic conditions. Why?
· Extreme type of climate is experienced in the plateau areas of west Pakistan whereas equable humid climate is found in Karachi.
· In the plains the average rainfall is mere 13cm while in the highlands it is 89cm.

h. Why do the Pakistan plains not get much rainfall?
There is no mountain barrier across the direction of wind.

i. State the main features of the climate of Pakistan.
Pakistan has extreme type of climate.
Most of Pakistan has a semi arid climate with hot summers and cold winters.
Most of the rain is brought by the monsoon winds which blow between June and September. The average rainfall is 50 cm per annum.

j. Why is the delta of River Indus not suitable for agriculture?
The delta of the Indus is not suitable for agriculture as it is badly polluted due to oil-spills, toxic waste and sewage. Moreover, it often gets flooded with sea-water.

k. Why does Pakistan not have large scale heavy industries? What industries are economically important?
Due to restricted mineral resources and negligible iron-ore and coal, which are essential for most basic industries like iron and steel industry.
Industry concentrates on agricultural produce, i.e. mostly agro-industries like cotton, sugar, and tobacco, leather and other craft based industries.

l. Compare the plains of Pakistan and Bangladesh.
In Pakistan, the Indus-Punjab plain which is drained by five rivers . It has fertile alluvial soil. There are no hills . Agriculture is possible due to good soil, water and extensive irrigation projects.
Bangladesh has deltaic lowlands. 90% of Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta has alluvial fertile soil made up of silt but is extremely low lying areas . Ox-bow lakes are found in the western side. The southern parts, especially Sunderbans, are subject to severe flooding.

MYANMAR
16. a. Which is the most important river of Myanmar? Give one reason. (2)
River Irrawady is the most important river because it flows across the entire country and forms the
largest alluvial plain.

b) With reference to Myanmar, name : (3)
i) Any two countries which have common border with it. - India and Bangladesh

ii) A plateau - Shan Plateau

iii) Two crops - Rice and maize

iv. Longest river - Mekong river

v) Capital – Yangon

vi) Highest peak – Hkukabo Razi

c. Give the latitudinal and longitudinal extension of Myanmar. Name its capital.
Latitude – 10 degree N to 28 degree N
Longitude – 92 degree E to 101 degree E
Captial – Yangoon (Rangoon)

d. Name any two countries that have land border with Myanmar?
India, Chinal, Thailand

e. Name the physical divisions into which Myanmar can be divided.
· The Young Fold Mountains
· The Upland and Low Hills
· The Low Lands

BANGLADESH
17. a.List two physical features that influence agriculture in Bangladesh. What is the latitudinal and longitudinal extension of Bangladesh? From which longitude does it take its standard time and how many hours is it ahead or behind that of Pakistan?
The physical features of Bangladesh which affect her agriculture are:
* Bangladesh covers 90% of the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta with its thick layer of alluvium soils deposited by these rivers.
* Because of shallow river beds, floods are very common during the rains. These floods make the soil fertile.
* Enormous water available for irrigation, for the delta gets regularly flooded by tidal waters.
Bangladesh lies between 21 degree N and 26 degree 30’N latitudes and between 88 degree E and 92 degree 30’E longitudes.
It takes 90 degree E as its standard time and it is 6 hours ahead of GMT and 1 hour ahead of Pakistan.

b. Name any two densely populated countries of South Asia.
India and Bangladesh

c. i) Name the country which lies between latitudes 21 degree N and 26 degree 30’ N and 88 degree E and 92 degree 30’E.
Bangladesh

ii) Name a country which has a land border with Bangladesh.
India and Myanmar are two countries that have a land border with Bangladesh.

iii) Which important line of latitude passes through the middle of Bangladesh?
Tropic of Cancer (23 degree ½’N ) passes through the middle of Bangladesh.
Dhaka is the capital of Bangladesh.

d. Name the countries that have a land border with Bangladesh. What was Bangladesh formerly known as? Why is the land of Bangladesh fertile?
Ans: India and Myanmar
Formerly Bangladesh was known as “East Pakistan”.
· The land of Bangladesh is very fertile because it has been formed by the Ganga and
Brahmaputra delta. These rivers deposit a lot of alluvial soil which makes the land very fertile.

e. Mention any three characteristics of the physiography of Bangladesh. (3)
.* Most of the land surface of Bangladesh is less than 50 feet above sea level and consists of flood of
the Ganga-Brahmaputra rivers and their tributaries.
* The only hilly areas are the Chittagong hills in eastern and Southeastern Bangladesh.
* A number of islands also exist in Bangladesh.
* It has an irregular coastline marked by deep inlets.

f. Give three reasons why Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world.
* Bangladesh has fertile plains. Flat land covered by alluvial soil brought by rivers is suitable for cultivation.
* Presence of large number of rivers and their tributaries and distributaries provide ample water for irrigation and industrial purposes.
* Network of rivers and their distributaries provide a major means of cheapest communication.
* Tropical monsoon climate favours cultivation.
* Industries like Jute and fishing provide employment.


g. What was Bangladesh formerly known as? Name two countries which have a land border with Bangladesh?
Formerly Bangladesh was known as ‘East Pakistan.’
It has land border with India and Myanmar.

h. Why is the land of Bangladesh is fertile?
· The land of Bangladesh is very fertile because it has been formed by the Ganga and Brahmaputra delta.
·
i. Why is Bangladesh prone to flooding? How are the floods beneficial to the people of that country?
Bangladesh is situated in the world’s largest delta formed by the rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and Meghna at the head of Bay of Bengal, and hence consists of a flood plain of these rivers and their tributaries.
The rivers deposit fertile soil along their banks during periodic floods. The soil deposits that have built up at the mouths of the rivers form the broad Ganges Delta. Rice and jute , the most important crops of Bangladesh, thrive in the wet delta region. Farmers harvest three crops in most years.


j. Which is the most important occupation followed by the people of Bangladesh? Give reason.
Agriculture is the most important occupation of people of Bangladesh. It is so because of the rich fertile soil available in Bangladesh.

k. Into how many physical divisions can Bangladesh be divided? Name them.
Bangladesh can be divided into two physical divisions. They are:-
The Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta
Chittagong Hill Tract

l. Give the various names by which river Brahamaputra is known in Bangladesh.
The river Brahamaputra is known as Jamuna in Bangladesh. After joining the Ganga in the central part, it is known as Padma.

m. Give the main features of climate of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh has tropical monsoon type of climate. It is generally warm and humid throughout the year. It receives heavy rainfall of over 200 cm annually. South-West monsoon cause rainfall between June and October. Cyclonic storms cause heavy rainfall in early summer.

n. Where is Chittagong Hill Tract located? Briefly describe its flora and fauna. Why is Chittagong important?
Chittagong Hills are located in south-east of Bangaladesh. It is a small, hilly tract stretching in north-south direction. It is made up of soft, clayey soil.
Cheetahs, mongooses, snakes, crocodiles, elephants, leopards are the major animals found. Trees like teak, sal, gurjan grow providing valuable timber.
Chittagong is the chief seaport and commercial centre.

NEPAL
18.a. How have the physical structure of Nepal affected the basic occupation of the people? or
How have the relief and climate of Nepal affected the basic occupations of the people of that country?
* The mighty peaks of the Himalayas is the greatest attraction to the tourists, so tourism is one of the main economic activity.
* Due to mountains only 30% of the total land area is suitable for cultivation but still 90% of the people are engaged in agriculture. Animal rearing is the major occupation of the people.
* Forests cover 30% of the total area of Nepal. So forestry is another important occupation.

b. The means of transport in Nepal is underdeveloped. Why? Or What disadvantages does communication in Nepal suffer from?
The means of transport and communication in Nepal is underdeveloped due to its topographical features. It is a mountainous and land locked country. It is very difficult to traverse these mountains. Also, Nepal being a poor underdeveloped country, not enough roads or railways exist therein as they are expensive to construct. Also there is no possibility of waterways.

c. Mention any two features of Terai plains of Nepal. (2)
* It is a fertile plain of Nepal.
* It is a marshy and forest covered.

d. Name the states of India which touch the borders of Nepal. Why does Nepal have limited cultivable land? (2)
The states are Sikkim, West Bengal, Bihar, U.P. and Uttarakhand.
Nepal has limited cultivable land because of its topography. The southern most part of Nepal is marshy and forest covered whereas, the northern part is dominated by the Himalayan range.

e) What is the latitudinal and longitudinal extension of Nepal?
Nepal extends from 26 degree 30’N to 30 degree N latitudes and 80 degree E to 88 degree E longitudes.

f) Which is the capital of Nepal?
ANS: Kathmandu

g. Name any two countries that have land border with Nepal?
India and China

h. Mention two factors which are responsible for the slow growth of industry in Nepal.
* Very high ranges of Greater, Lesser and Outer Himalayas extend from west to east of Nepal giving rise to highly rugged terrain. This makes it difficult for any agricultural or industrial activity to continue.
* Nepal experiences a cold temperate climate. Due to this severe cold climate , it is difficult to carry on industrial activity throughout the year.
* Lack of minerals in Nepal is one the main reason for the slow growth of industry.
* It has no infrastructure facilities for the growth of industries.

i) Why is Nepal called ‘land locked’ country? or Define a land locked country.
Nepal is a mountainous country where there is no possibility of waterways. Therefore, it is called ‘land locked’ country.

j. Highest mountain peak in Indian sub continent – Mt Everest (8848 m) in Nepal.

k. Describe the physical features of Nepal.
Nepal can be divided into three main physical divisions:
* THE SOUTHERN PART (Terai) – The southern most part of Nepal is a low-lying plain, called Terai. Because of floods during the monsoon, it is marshy and forest covered. It occupies about 17% of the total land area of Nepal.
* THE NORTHERN PART (The Himalayan Range) - This part is dominated by the Himalayan range. The Great Himalayas , i.e. the northernmost and the highest range of the Himalayas pass along the northern border of Nepal. Mt. Everest, the worlds highest peak lies in Nepal.
* THE CENTRAL PART (Valleys) – The central part of Nepal is occupied by small valleys such as Kathmandu and Pokhra. The Shiwalik or the outer Himalayas are knowsn as Churia Hills and Mahabharat Hills.

l. By what name is Ghaghra river known in Nepal?
Ghaghra river is known as Karnali in western Nepal.

m. Name the principal rivers of Nepal.
· The Ghaghra
· The Gandak
· The Saptakoshi

n. Which are the major tribes of Nepal?
The Gurkhas, The Shepras and The Bhotias are the major tribes of Nepal.

o. Name a few important passes in Nepal?
Khangla,
Deorali
Rakha
Nangpa
Kodan

p. The southern part of Nepal is marsh and forest covered. Give reason.
The southern part of Nepal has warm and humid climate. Moreover the rainfall is also maximum in the southern part. Therefore, this region is marshy and forest covered.

q. Mention the two factors which are responsible for the slow growth of industry in Nepal.
The factors responsible for the slow growth of industry in Nepal are:
Exploitation of minerals is difficult due to rugged mountains.
Nepal has lack of finances and technology.

r. Name the main rivers that rise in the Nepal Himalayas. How are they useful to the people?
Nepal is drained by three main river-systems. The Kosi is the most important river system which is joined by seven tributaries. It drains the eastern part of Nepal.
The Gandhak is also made up of seven rivers which drains the central part of Nepal.
The Karnali drains the western part of Nepal.
The rivers plunge from natural gorges which are ideal sites for generating hydel power. Kosi and Karnali have become destinations for river rafters and kayakers. River-water is the main source of irrigation for the terraced hill-slopes.

s. Why is agriculture of not much importance in Nepal? In which part of Nepal is it predomiant? Or Why does Nepal have limited cultivable land?
Nepal, being mostly mountainous, hardly any arable land is available except in the Kathmandu valley.

BHUTAN

19.a. Why the rivers in Bhutan flow from North to South?
Greater Himalayas ranges stretch across Bhutan in East to West direction. The land slopes North to South; so, rivers flow from North to South.

b. Why there are no extensive valleys in Bhutan? What vegetation found here?
There are no extensive valleys since the region is very rugged and mountainous. The Greater Himalayas and Lesser Himalayas are comparatively close to eacher. So, extensive valleys are non-existent.
Wet hill-forests of oaks and chestnuts are found here. A lot of vegetation on lower slope and ever green broad-leaved forests on higher slopes and coniferous forests upto 5000 m are found.

c. Name the countries which have a land border with Bhutan. What is its capital? And where it is located and famous for what?
India and China
Thimphu is the capital and it is located in West Central Asia. It is famous for temples and monasteries.

d. Explain why the rivers of Bhutan are not navigable but have a great potential for hydro-electric power.
The terrain of Bhutan is most rugged in the world. The elevation from sea level varies from 150m to more than 7,000 m in less than 100 km of distance. So rivers pass through rapids, waterfalls and steep narrow valleys

E . Which is the main range of the Lesser Himalayas in Bhutan? Give a feature of this range.
Main range in the Lesser Himalayas is the Black Mountain Range which runs north to south and
divides Bhutan almost equally. Gorges are found at lower elevations.

f. What is the origin and occupation of the people of Bhutan?
Two-thirds of the people of Bhutan are descendants of Tibetan settlers. Agriculture and stock breeding are the main occupations.

AFTHANISTAN
20.a. Give the latitudinal and longitudinal extension of Afthanistan. Name the capital.
Latitude – 20 degree 30’ N and 38 degree 30’N
Longitude - 60 degree 30 ‘ E and 75 degree 50’E
CAPITAL – Kabul

b. Name any two countries that have land border with Afghanistan. – Ans: Pakistan, Iran

c. Which mountains divide Afghanistan?
The Hindukush mountains divide Afghanistan into three regions:
i) The Central High Lands
ii) The South-Western Plateau
iii) The Smaller Northern Plain

d. Afghanistan is landlocked by how many counties? In which plate is it located?
Afghanistan is landlocked by 7 countries. I) Pakistan, China, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, India, Iran,
Turkmenistan.
Afganistán is located in Eurasian Tectonic plate.

e. Why most of the minerals found in Afghanisthan are till now unexploited?
Due to difficulty of access most of the minerals are till now unexploited.

f. What is the main feature of Afghantistan’s drainage system?
Afghanistan’s drainage system is landlocked. Most of the rivers and streams end in shallow desert lakes or oases inside or outside the country’s boundaries.

g. What is the main characteristic of Afthanistan?
Afghanistan is a land-locked country and it is located at the cross roads of major north-south and east-west trade routes.

h. Afghanistan is located in which plate?
Afghanistan is located in Eurasian Tectonic Plate.

i. Write any two features of climate of Afghanistan.
· Afganistan has continental climate where night and day temperatures vary widely both in summers and winters.
· Rainfall usually occurs from January to May. It also receives rainfall during winter.
MALDIVES

21a. Where is Maldives located? What is meant by the term atoll? How many atolls make up Maldives?
Maldives is located south-west of Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean or from south of the equator to 7 degree 06 ‘N latitude and 72 degree E to 73 degree E longitude.
‘Atolls’ are groups of small islands made up of coral.
There are about 1200 small coral islands in Maldives which are grouped together 26 clusters or atolls.
B Which is the most densely populated country of South Asia? Give one reason for this.
Maldives, with population being 874 per square kms is the most densely populated country of South Asia.
Maldives is an archipelago of small islands with a good climate. It is a very popular tourist spot, where coconut plantations, fishing and tourism are the main sources of income.

C With reference to the Maldives:
Where are they located?
Maldives is located in the Indian Ocean – 600 km south of India and west of Sri Lanka, at 7 degree 06’ N to 0 degre 42’ S; 72 degree 35’E to 73 degree 44’.
Why are they called atolls? Give one feature of these islands? Where does its economy dependent on?
“Atolls” are groups of small islands made up of coral.
Fishing is the main occupation. They export fish mainly Tuna and Bonito.

SRI LANKA
22. a. What separates India from Sri Lanka?
The Palk Strait or Gulf of Manar separates India from Sri Lanka.

b Why is literacy high in Sri Lanka? Who are the Moors and Burghers?
Education is compulsory and is free even at the university level resulting in nearly 95% literacy.
Moors are descendants of Arabs-Islam and Burghers are descendants of Europeans who married Sri Lankans.

c. State two features of the drainage of Sri Lanka. Name the water body that separates Sri Lanka from India.
Mountain streams and river Mahaweli Ganga are the two features of the drainage of Sri Lanka.
Palk Strait separates Sri Lanka from India.

D. How is the drainage system of Sri Lanka different from that of Nepal?
The drainage system of Sri Lanka is radial as all the rivers flow from the Central Highlands. On the other hand, the rivers of Nepal flow from north to south to join the Bay of Bengal after passing through India.

e. Where is the West Lowland region of Sri Lanka located? Why is it so called and what difficulties does it face?
Located in the south-west of Sri Lanka, 60 km from the coast to the foothills of Central Highlands.
Colombo located here gets a lot of rain from SW Monsoon, i.e. 75-125 cm. Being a low lying and undulating plain, it is ill-drained and so floods are common causing damage to crops and livestock.

f. How far does the physiography of Sri Lanka influence her economic activity?
Most of Sri Lanka is bordered by a wide plain which encourages agriculture. The hill-slopes of the Central Highlands are utilized for tea plantations. In the north-east and south-west, presence of a number of bays and harbours have encouraged fishing and trade. Mining is common in the limestone-rich region in the Jaffna Peninsula and Ratnapura is suitable for quarrying precious stones. Sri Lanka is famous for its beaches and thus tourism is also an important economy.

g. How is the geological structure of Sri Lanka similar to that of Peninsular India? State two main occupations of the people in Sri Lanka.
* The geological structure of Sri Lanka is similar that of Peninsular India because the rocks are consists of metamorphic and igneous rocks which are similar to the Deccan Plateau. This is because Sri Lanka was at one time part of Peninsular India which got separated by the Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar due to rise in sea-level.
* The Halton and the Uba basis or the the Welimada plateau are the most important plateaus with an average height of about 1200 m whereas the Malwa and the Deccan Plateau are the most important plateaus of Peninsula with average height of 1000m.
The two main occupations are farming and fishing.




23.ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS

1. Name two countries that fall under South East India?
Malaysia and Thailand

2. Define ‘jet stream’.
A swiftly blowing wind at height of 3 to 5 kms above the subtropical pressure region is called ‘jet stream’.

3. Name the mountain ranges extending towards east from the Pamir Knot.
There are 4 mountain ranges extending towards west from the Pamir Knot namely:
i) The Himalayas
ii) The Karakoram
iii) Hindukush
iv. Sulaiman

4. Name the mountain ranges extending towards west from the Pamir Knot.
There are two mountain ranges extending towards west from the Pamir Knot namely:
i) The Sulaiman ii) The Hindu Kush

5. Name the state that has the highest average density of population in India as per 1991 census.
Uttar Pradesh has the highest average density of population in India as per 1991 census.

6. What is meant by ‘ the season of retreating monsoon’.
The withdrawal of south-west monsoons in the months of October and November is called the season of retreating monsoon.


7. Name the following:
a. A country in the Indian subcontinent having sea on all sides - Sri Lanka.
b. A country in the Indian subcontinent having sea on one side – Bangladesh
c. The states of India having a common border with Nepal – Uttarkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar,
West Bengal, Sikkim
d. The states of India having a common border with Pakistan – Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir,
Rajasthan, Gujarat
e. A country which shares its frontiers with six countries including India – Afghanistan.
f. The water bodies that surround Indian Subcontinent – The Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Indian
Ocean








9 comments:

vivek said...

Thank you very much for notes br.

swaroopa said...

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meghana said...

THANK U BR........THAT U HAD UPDATED THE INFORMATION ABT SARRC NATION...........AND IT IS USEFUL...AND ALSO PLZ DO UPDATE MORE AND MORE TOPOSHEETS........THANK U FOR TAKING TOO MUCH OF RISK 4 US

priyanka.. said...

thank u brother for updating notes on SAARC nations br..

we can get perfect notes...and can easily...
and it is very useful too...
thank u once again br..

spoorthy said...

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spoorthy said...

br put some more questions abt location and climate of saarc nations in which v r not so perfect n even toposheets. 2day v enjoyed ur class. very much......

sahana said...

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sahana said...

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supreetha said...

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