Sunday, May 31, 2009



India has a variety of mineral resources that play a very important role in the industrial development of the country. India has large deposits of Iron ore, manganese ore and bauxite ore. India has a virtual monopoly over mica. India is self-sufficient in coal but coking coal is limited. India has small deposits of zinc, copper, lead and gold. It lacks sulphur and is poor in the production of mineral oil and natural gas. We have small deposits of minerals required for nuclear energy.

IRON ORE: India has some of the world’s largest reserves of iron ore. India stands second, next to Russia, in the world in iron ore reserves. The two important types of iron ores available in India are hematite and magnetite. Orissa and Jharkhand have the largest iron ore deposit in India. The richest iron ore belt is the U-shaped range from Singhbhum district in Jharkhand passing through Keonghar, Mayurbhanj and Sundargarh districts in Orissa. The ore is hematite with 60-65% of iron. Raipur, Durg and Bastar districts of Chhattisgarh are noted for iron ore production. There are iron ore reserves in Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu and Karnataka. Kemmangundi in Chikkamagalur district, Hospet and Sandur in Bellary district in Karnataka have hematite ore. In recent years magnetite ore is mined at Kudremukh in Karnataka. Maharashtra also has some iron ore deposits. The iron ore produced in India is used by the iron and steel plants located in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. India exports iron ore to Japan and other countries thus earning foreign exchange. Japan imports 55% of the total iron ore produced in India. Iron ore is exported through the ports of Marmagoa, Mangalore, Vishakhapatnam, Paradeep and Haldia. The other countries which import iron ore from India are China, Italy, Iran etc.

Manganese ore is an important ferro-alloy, which is smelted with iron ore to produce steel. The hardness of steel depends on the quantity of manganese ore used in its production. Manganese ore is also used in chemical industry, electrical industry and production of varnishes. Indian manganese ore is high quality. Pyrolusite and psilomelane are the important ores of manganese. Orissa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra are the important manganese ore producing states of India. The other states which produce manganese ore are Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Punjab and Goa. Most of the manganese ore deposits are close to the iron ore deposits and this is convenient for the production of steel. India exports manganese ore through Haldia, Vishakhapatnam, Marmagoa and Mumbai ports to the USA, Europe and Japan.

It is a raw material used in the production of aluminium. Aluminium is light, low priced, resistant to corrosion and a good conductor of heat. It is used right from household utensils to artificial satellites. It is called wonder metal. Bauxite is widely distributed in India, specially in the laterite rocks of peninsular India and Meghalaya. Bauxite deposits are also found in Bihar, Orissa, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Jammu and Kashmir has also bauxite deposits. India exports bauxite mainly to Japan. The other countries that import bauxite from India are Britain, Germany and Italy.

India has the largest deposits of mica in the world and has monopoly over mica. 60% of the world's total production of mica comes from India. It has some special qualities, the important among them are insulation and elasticity. So it is very useful in electrical industry, which has a great demand. Indian mica is considered to be the best mica in the world. The important states, which produce mica, are Jharkhand, Bihar, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh. Hazaribagh district in Jharkand and Gaya and Munger districts of Bihar produce nearly half of India’s mica. Most of India’s mica is exported to the USA, Britain, Germany and France.

It is a very good conductor of heat. It is used in electrical industry. Copper was used by early civilisations for household utensils. Most of India’s copper is found in Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Madhya Pradesh. India’s production of copper is not sufficient to meet the country’s demand. So we import copper from the USA, Canada, Zambia, Japan and East Africa.

India has very small deposits of gold. Until India attained Independence the only gold mines were Kolar Gold Fields. Now, the gold is mined at Hutti in Raichur district of Karnataka and Ananthpur district of Andhra Pradesh. Kolar Gold Fields are very deep and gold is getting exhausted. Many mines are being
closed down. Gold deposits in small quantities are also found in Bihar, Kerala
and Tamilnadu. Gold in the form of veins is found in quartz rocks at
Kappatagudda near Gadag district in our state.
Power resources is one of the most important natural resources and is
very essential for the economic development of a country. Coal, petroleum,
natural gas, hydel power and nuclear power are some of the important power
resources. The other power resources are wind energy, tidal energy, geothermal
energy, solar energy and biogas.

Coal is the most important source of energy in India. About 98% of India’s coal belongs to the Gondwana Age. During this period, luxuriant forests were submerged and after millions of years, due to a lot of heat and pressure, they were converted into coal. Coal is not only a power resource but it also provides many bi-products. Coal is known as “Black diamond”. Anthracite and Bituminous coal are the two kinds of coal.
The coalfields are widely distributed in Damodar river valley. Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal states produce 89% of India’s coal. Chhattisgarh has the largest coal deposits. Jharia, Bokaro, Giridih and Karanpur are important coalfields. Jharia has the best coking coal, which is required for smelting of iron ore. It is the largest producer of coking coal in India. Raniganj coalfield is the largest coalfield in India. Coal is in great demand for railway engines, steamers and for the production of thermal energy. The river valleys of Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha have smaller coalfields. The important coalfields are Sohagpur of Madhya Pradesh and Korba of Chhattisgarh. There are also coalfields in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. Indian coal is poor in quality. The superior coking coal is used for smelting iron ore and the inferior coal is used for the production of thermal energy.

Petroleum is the second important power resource. Petroleum is called
“liquid gold”, since it is used in all economic activities. Most of the petroleum and natural gas of India are found in Assam and Gujarat. Petroleum was first discovered at Digboi in Assam and it was the only producer of oil until Independence. Now oil is produced from oil wells in
Lakhimpur and Naga region (Hugrijan, Moran and Naharkatiya). New oil fields have been recently discovered by the Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) in the Brahmaputra valley at Rudrasagar and Lakwa. Gujarat basin is another oil producing area. The ONGC conducted exploration and drilled the first oil well at Ankleshwar. Now many oil wells are dug in this region. In 1974 oil was discovered In the Arabian Sea at Bombay High (110 kms from Mumbai) and commercial production was started in 1976. This is the largest oil field of India. Offshore drilling platform, Sagar Samrat, was bought from Japan to drill the oil. Recently oil deposits have been discovered in the deltaic regions of Kaveri, Krishna, Godavari and Mahanadi.

Natural gas is another source of power. It is found along with petroleum
or separately. Bombay High is the largest producer of natural gas. The other regions which produce natural gas are Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu. Digboi was the only oil refinery till 1954. Now we have 17 oil refineries. Recently a new refinery was set up at Mangalore. India does not produce enough petroleum, so it imports crude oil from Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Russia.

India is deficient in petroleum and coal resources. So there is a great need for the use of other sources of energy. India has small deposits of nuclear minerals. India has also developed the technology for producing atomic energy. Uranium, thorium, plutonium and berilium are the important minerals used for the production of atomic energy. The first nuclear plant was set up at Tarapur in Maharashtra in 1969. The other nuclear plants that were set up later are at Ranapratap Sagar in Rajasthan, Kalpakam in Tamilnadu, Narora in Uttar Pradesh and Surat in Gujarat. Recently nuclear plants were set up at Srisailam in Andhra Pradesh and Kaiga in Karnataka. The first five plants are located in places far away from coal and petroleum deposits and hydel projects. There was a lot of local protest against the Kaiga nuclear plant, due to the fear that radio active gases, which would be given out, would cause destruction to the evergreen forests. But it has started producing atomic energy from 2001. It has the capacity of producing 440 M.W. power.

India has a vast scope for the development of hydel power. The North-
Eastern region has more potential to produce hydel power. Almost all the states of India produce hydel power. Andhra Pradesh leads in the production of hydel power in India. The first successful power plant was started on Kaveri river at Shivana Samudram in 1902 in Karnataka. Later Tata hydro-electric power station was started in the Western Ghats in Maharashtra. Pykara project was the first hydel project in Tamilnadu. ‘Mandi power house’ project was the first project in the Himachal Pradesh. Some of the other hydel power projects are Mahatma Gandhi project at Jog Falls on Sharavathi river, Kalinadi project, Ghataprabha and Varahi projects in Karnataka; Shabaragiri and Idikki projects in Kerala; Salal hydel project in Jammu and Kashmir; Nagarjuna Sagar and Srisailam in Andhra Pradesh.

The conventional sources of energy such as coal, petroleum and natural
gas are exhaustible resources, so India has developed many other sources of energy during the Five Year Plans, namely non-conventional sources of energy. The important non-conventional sources of energy are solar energy, wind energy, bio-gas, tidal energy, geo-thermal energy etc.
The states of Gujarat, Tamilnadu, Maharashtra and Orissa have favourable conditions for the generation of wind energy. Kanyakumari region of Tamilnadu produces the largest quantity of wind energy in our country. “Wind energy technological station” has been set up at Chennai to develop wind energy.

The Gulf of Kachchh and Khambat (Cambay) are ideally suited for the generation of tidal energy, Recently, tidal energy producing station has been set up in “Sundarbans” in W.Bengal to produce tidal energy in small quantity.

Geo-thermal energy is produced from hot springs. There are about 340 hot water springs in India, which are helpful to produce geo-thermal energy. Himachal Pradesh is noted for the production of geo-thermal energy.

Urban waste, sewage, and animal waste can be used to generate energy.
It is called bio-gas or gobar gas. It can be used for domestic purposes as
well as for community purposes.

India has a favourable location for the development of solar energy. India has already made progress in the use of solar energy for daily requirements. It is a equi-stable energy and can rightly be called the energy of the future, because it is an inexhaustible source of energy. Solar energy station at Baramar in Rajasthan was set up to produce large quantities of solar energy. Solar energy is used as a source of electricity in villages. It is also used in railway signals, lift irrigation, and for communication media. Solar cookers and solar heaters are very popular. It is also used in desalination of water and drying of grains. At Gurgao near Delhi, a centre has been opened to carry out special research in solar energy.

I Answer the following questions briefly:
1) Which are the mineral resources of India?
2) Name the iron ore deposits of Chhattisghar.
3) What is the importance of mica?
4) In which state is Geo-thermal energy best harnessed?
5) What are the uses of copper?
II Answer the following questions in three to four sentences:
1) Name the important power resources. What is their importence?
2) Mention the uses of manganese ore and the areas where it is produced in
3) Mention the development of hydel power In India.
4) Which ore is used for the production of aluminium? Where is it available in
5) Where is coal found in India?
6) Name the nuclear power stations of India.

III Fill in the blanks:
1) The first successful hydel power generating station started in India was
2) The two types of iron ore are …………….. and ………..
3) India has monopoly over ………… mineral.
4) 98% of India’s coal is from ………………….. age .
5) The petroleum refining station of Karnataka is at ……..
6) In Himachal Pradesh region hydro-electricity was first produced at …..
7) The nuclear project in Karnataka is established at ……..
IV Study the relation between the first pair of words and complete the second
1) Tamilnadu : Kalpakam :: Rajasthan: ………….
2) Idikki : Kerala : Koyna : ……………
3) Shabarigiri : hydel power: Narora : ……………
4) Shivanasamudram: Karnataka :; Hirakud: ……….
V Activities:
1) Collect the important minerals which are available in your region.
2) Locate the important mineral and power resource areas on the map of India.

Saturday, May 30, 2009



Today India is one among the top ten industrial nations of the world. Industrial development has changed India’s economy from under-developed status to developing status.

Industries can be classified into various types on the basis of their structure. The two main types are:
1) Manufacturing industries including heavy and light industries.
2) Small-scale and cottage industries .

Manufacturing industries: Industries which are concerned with the processing or conversion of raw materials into finished products are called manufacturing industries.

1) Manufacturing industries increase the national income and per capita
income. Industrial development increases the employment opportunities
to a large number of people and thus increases their income.
2) Industrial development solves the problems of un-employment and under employment which are some of the major problems of India.
3) Industrial development promotes agricultural development. Many industries are agro-based industries. Agricultural products are raw materials for these industries. Development of these industries enables
agriculture to increase its production.
4) Industrial development helps to utilise the natural resources, such as mineral resources, water resources, forest resources and other natural
resources. Utilisation of these natural resources helps in the progress 0f the country.
5) Many institutions belonging to the tertiary sector are also developed as
a result of industrial development. e.g. Banking, education, insurance,
transport and communication.
6) Countries which depend only on agriculture have low standard of living. But countries which have developed both in agriculture and industries have well balanced economic system.
7) Industrialisation helps both the domestic and foreign trade of a nation. Many goods, which we produce are exported to other countries and help us to earn foreign exchange. It also reduces our dependence on
foreign countries for many goods.
8) Generally industries are located in towns and cities, this enables the
towns and cities to become trade and cultural centres.
9) Arms and ammunition required for the defence of the country need to be produced in the country itself. We cannot depend on other countries for these arms and ammunition. Industries manufacture tankers, aeroplanes, explosives, guns, bullets and many other defence requirements and thus help to strengthen the defence of the country.
10) Increase of industries helps in the increase of income of the government because they pay taxes and duties to thegovernment.

Facilities available for industrial development in India:
1) India has plenty of natural resources like forests, minerals, power resources, water resources etc. which are required for industrial development.
2) India has large human resource, which can provide cheap labour. The
large population of India also provides market for industrial products.
3) India is an agricultural country. Agriculture provides raw materials for many industries and agriculture is the chief market for industrial

Industrial development in India:
Ancient India had made great progress in industries. Manufacture of cloth, gunny bags, paper and other industries were well developed in India. Example: Muslin cloth of Dacca, chintzes of Masulipatnam, Calicos of Calicut and Gold embroidery of Surat. All these goods were manufactured in cottage industries. During the British period all these industries suffered. The industrial policy of the British and the Industrial Revolution in England were the main causes for the decline of our industries. However few modern manufacturing industries were started during the British period.Important among them were a cotton textile mill at Bombay in 1854, a Jute mill in Calcutta in 1855 and another cotton textile mill at Ahmedabad. A paper mill was started near Calcutta in 1867 and smelting of iron ore at Kulti in West Bengal in 1870. Availability of raw materials and cheap labour were responsible for the establishment of these industries. Our industrial progress was very slow until the First World War. After the First World War, industries like iron and steel, chemicals, sugar, cement and machine tools were started. After Independence, our industries made great progress. The Five Year
Plans were started for all-round economic development and today India occupies an important place in world industrial development.

Factors for the location of Industries:
The factors for the location of industries are availability of raw materials,
power resources, transport and communication facilities, skilled and unskilled labour, favourable climate, capital, water resources, market and Government policy. All these facilities may not be found in one region, but a combination of these factors leads to the location of industries.

Industrial regions of India:
Based on the factors mentioned above, four main industrial regions are
found in India. They are,
1) West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh
2) Maharashtra and Gujarat
3) Central Gangetic region
4) South India
Jharkhand, West Bengal and Chhattisgarh region: It is also known as Damodar-Hooghli region. The region includes Chotanagpur plateau which has large deposits of minerals like iron ore, coal, manganese, mica and bauxite. Port facilities, power resources and availability of cheap labour are the other factors.

Maharashtra - Gujarat region: It has extensive cotton growing areas. There are good transport and port facilities, hydro-electric power, labour force and facilities for capital investment. Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Surat, Sholapur are noted for cotton manufacture.

Central Gangetic region: This region produces plenty of raw materials required for agro-based industries. The Plain region has made possible for the development of roads and railways. High density of population has provided market and labour supply.

South India: The industries are spread over many towns and cities of South India. Many types of industries have been developed. Availability of raw materials, hydro-electric power, market and labour force have helped the growth of many industries. Bangalore, Chennai, Coimbatore, Salem and Hyderabad are the important industrial centres.

Manufacturing industries are divided into two types on the basis of the
raw materials that they use. They are
1) Agro-based industries
2) Mineral-based industries

1) AGRO-BASED INDUSTRIES: The important agro-based industries are cotton textiles, jute, sugar and paper.

The first cotton textile mill on modern lines was started in Bombay in 1854. Later, mills were started at Ahmedabad in 1858, then in Kanpur, Nagpur, Sholapur, Surat and other places. Today India holds the third place among the cotton textile producing countries of the world. It provides mployment to a large number of people and also helps to earn foreign exchange. Gujarat and Maharashtra states, lead the country in cotton textile production. Mumbai and Ahmedabad are the important centres. Mumbai has the largest number of cotton textile mills. It is the main cotton textile centre in India. Mumbai is called cottonopolis or Manchester of India. (Manchester is the main cotton textile centre in England) The other important centres of cotton textiles are Nagpur and Sholapur in Maharashtra, Kolkata in West Bengal, Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh, Indore in Madhya Pradesh, Surat in Gujarat, Salem, Coimbatore and Chennai in Tamilnadu, Bangalore and Davangere in Karnataka and Delhi.
Handloom industry
Handloom industry is concentrated in Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Assam and Uttar Pradesh. In recent years ready-made cotton garment industry has been developing fast and earns a good amount of foreign exchange. Cotton textiles and ready-made garments are exported from India to foreign markets. Europe, the U.S.A., and many countries of Africa and Australia are our main markets. Rough cotton cloth and cotton thread are exported to Myanmar, Middle East, Thailand and other countries.

Jute industry:
Jute industry occupies an important place in the industrial progress of India. It has provided employment to about 25 lakh workers. India produces 35 % of the total jute products of the world. Its share in earning
foreign exchange is also important. The first jute mill was started at Rishra near Kolkata in 1855. Being an export oriented industry, it grew very fast. The partition of India struck a heavy blow to the jute industry. Most of the jute mills remained in India and the jute growing areas went to East Pakistan (Bangladesh). Now attempts have been made to grow jute in the Gangetic delta of West Bengal, in Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa. Jute mills are largely concentrated in lower Hooghly basin. The main reasons for this concentration are availability of raw jute, fresh water, cheap water transport, power resources, cheap labour, capital and port facilities. In recent years, jute mills have also been located in Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. The main jute products are gunny bags, jute cloth, tarpaulins, ropes and cordages (required for cable industry). India exports jute products to the U.S.A Britain, Canada, Argentina and Russia.

Sugar Industry: Sugar has been used in India since a very long time. India produces White sugar, Khandsari and Gur or Jaggery. It provides employment to about 2.5 lakh people in India and also earns foreign exchange. Modern sugar mills were started in 1931. Sugarcane, which is the raw material for sugar industry, is a perishable and weight losing raw material. The Sugar factories are located wherever sugarcane is grown. Sugar factories are concentrated in the Gangetic plain (Uttar Pradesh and Bihar). The other states where sugar factories are found are Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The sugarcane of Peninsular India yields more sugar than the North Indian sugarcane. There are 37 sugar factories in Karnataka. The districts of Mandya, Belgaum and Bellary have a large number of sugar factories. Gorakhpur districts of Uttar Pradesh has the largest number of sugar mills and is called “Java of India”. India exports sugar to the U.S.A, Britain, Iran, Malaysia and Canada.

Paper Industry:
Paper manufacturing had been carried on in India as a cottage industry since ancient times. As a manufacturing industry it was first started in 1867 at Bally near Kolkata. There were only 15 paper mills before independence. Softwood, bamboo, sabai grass, straw, bagasse, soft water and chemicals are the raw materials required for paper industry. Owing to very limited forest as raw materials. The chemicals required for paper industry are caustic soda, soda ash, sodium sulphate, chlorine and sulphuric acid. West Bengal has the largest number of paper mills in India. The reasons for it are, availability of raw materials, coal and electricity, abundant supply of soft water, supply of capital and availability of cheap labour. The important centres are Kolkata, Titagarh, Raniganj and Kakinada. In Karnataka the paper mills are located at Dandeli, Bhadravathi, Mandya etc. Nepanagar in Madhya Pradesh is an
important producer of newsprint. The production of paper in India is not
sufficient to meet the demand, so large quantities of paper are imported from other countries.

The important mineral-based industries of India are iron and steel, heavy engineering and machinery, machine tools,transport equipment, chemicals, chemical fertilizers and cement industries.

Iron and steel industry:
Indians knew the art of smelting iron ore since early times. Modern steel industry was first started at Kulti in West Bengal in 1874. But the real beginning of Iron and Steel industry was made in 1907 at Jamshedpur in Bihar (present Jharkhand) by the Tatas, called Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO). Again in 1919 a steel plant was set up at Burnpur in West Bengal called Indian Iron and Steel Company (ISCO) and at Bhadravathi in Karnataka in 1923 called Mysore Iron and Steel Company
(MISCO). Now it is called Vishweswaraiah Iron and Steel Company (VISCO). After Independence during the Second Five Year Plan period, three big Iron and Steel plants were established at Bhilai in Madhya Pradesh (now in Chhattisgarh) Rourkela in Orissa and Durgapur in West Bengal. During the Third Five Year Plan, a very big steel plant was established at Bokaro in Bihar ( now in Jharkhand). The fourth five year plan proposed to start three more steel plants at Salem, Vijayanagar and Vishakhapatnam. The Salem and Vishakhapatnam steel plants have started production but Vijayanagar steel plant was entrusted to the private sector and production is in the beginning stage. Tata Iron and Steel Company and Vijayanagar steel plant are under the private sector.
The others are under the public sector. To encourage and extend iron and steel industry under both private and public sectors, Steel Authority of India was established in 1973. All the raw materials required for iron and steel industry like iron ore, manganese, limestone and coal are bulky and weight-losing. So this industry is located near the regions where the raw materials are found in abundance. The finished products are also heavy and need good transport system for their distribution. Iron and steel industry is concentrated around the Chotanagpur plateau which is rich in most of the raw materials required and therefore Chotanagpur plateau is called the Rhur of India. (Rhur region in Germany is noted for iron and steel industry). India exports a large quantity of steel and cast iron to Britain, the U.S.A and Japan.

Engineering Industry:
There was a time when we were dependent on other countries for various types of engineering goods. Since Independence great progress has been achieved in this field and now we manufacture machinery required to manufacture goods. A heavy engineering plant is established at Ranchi in Jharkhand, which manufactures various machines required by us and also machinery for export. Hindustan Machine Tools at Bangalore manufactures a wide variety of machine tools and tractors. Machines required to manufacture cement and chemicals are manufactured at Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh.

Heavy electrical equipment industry:
India produces many types of electrical equipment. Heavy electrical motors, transformers, water wheels, electric fans etc., are manufactured at Bhopal, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Tiruchinapalli and otherplaces. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) has set up its plants at differentplaces. One such plant is in Bangalore.
Transport and equipment Industry:
India has made good progress in this industry also. It is engaged in the production of automobiles, railway engines, railway coaches, railway wheels and axles and ships. Chittaranjan in West Bengal manufactures electrical and diesel locomotives, Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh produces diesel locomotives, Perambur near Chennai produces railway coaches. Mumbai, Kolkata, Kochi, Vishakahpatnam and Marmagoa are the major ship building centres. Aircraft industry has been developed at Bangalore, Hyderabad and Kanpur. Maruthi Udyog near Delhi produces motor cars. Kolkata(West Bengal), Jamshedpur(Jharkhand), Hosur in Tamllnadu (Leyland) and Bangalore in Karnataka (Volvo) are noted for the manufacture of motor vehicles. The railway wheel and axle plant is at Yelhanka near Bangalore.

Chemical Industry:
Many chemicals are required for the production of rayon, rubber, paper, glass, soap, chemical fertilizers and insecticides. Except for sulphur, the other raw materials are available in India for the production of chemicals. After Independence great progress has been made in this direction. At present, there are more than three hundred chemical factories spread all over India. Mumbai, Kolkata, Kanpur, Bangalore, Chennai and Ahmedabad are the important centres of this industry. Sulphuric acid, caustic soda, soda ash, bleaching powder and soaps are produced in our country.

Chemical fertilizer industry:
Chemical fertilizers are very essential to improve the fertility of the soil and to increase the production in agriculture. India being a predominantly an agricultural nation, production of chemical fertilizers is necessary. Complex fertilizers like urea, ammonium sulphate and nitrates are produced in India. The bi-products of coal, and oil refineries are used as raw materials in this industry. Now natural gas is also used as a raw material. The first chemical fertilizer factory in India was started at Belagola near Mysore (Mysore fertilizers). The next factory was started at Travancore (Alwaye) in Kerala called Fertilizer and Chemicals Travancore Ltd. (FACTS). Now there are more than one hundred fertilizer factories under both public and private sectors. Some of the important fertilizer factories under the public sector are at Sindri (Jharkhand), Nangal (Punjab), Trombay (Maharashtra), Gorakhpur (Uttar Pradesh). Rourkela (Orissa), Neyveli (Tamilnadu), Durgapur (West Bengal), Kochi (Kerala) and Mangalore (Karnataka). Though the production of fertilizers has increased over the past few years, still it is not sufficient and we import fertilizers from other countries.

Cement Industry:
Cement is the most essential commodity for construction work after iron and steel. For the construction of buildings, roads, river valley projects, bridges etc., cement is very necessary along with iron. That is why the consumption of cement is the index for the rate of development of a country. The first cement factory was set up at Chennai in 1904. It used seashells as raw material. Now limestone, coal and gypsum are the main raw materials. As the raw materials are heavy, the cement factories are generally located close to the source of raw materials. Cement factories are located all over India, because the raw materials are available throughout the country. There are about 150 cement factories in India. Most of the cement factories are in Tamilnadu, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Most of the
factories are under the private sector. In Karnataka, Associated Cement Company near Gulbarga, Mysore Cement Company in Bhadravathi, Diamond Cement factory at Ammasandra near Tumkur are important. India is self sufficient in cement production. We also export cement to Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Myanmar, Afghanistan, Iran etc.

You have already studied that India has made industrial progress. This
development has resulted in some good and bad effects.

Good effects: Industrialisation has changed India into a developing nation and to-day India is one of the ten industrially advanced nations of the World. Industrialisation has increased production through the utilization of unused natural resources. It has reduced to some extent the population that would have been dependent on agriculture. The industrial centres have become the centres of education, culture and trade. Industrialisation has enabled us to become selfreliantwith regard to many goods for which we were depending on other countries earlier. It has affected our foreign trade also and we are able to export many goods to other countries. Import of many goods has been stopped or reduced. The National Income and per capita income has increased. We
have achieved development in the field of technology also. There is great
progress in the field of Banking, Transport and Communication and Insurance. The foreign countries are attracted and they are investing their capital in our industries. The non-resident Indians are also investing capital and hence the investment of capital has considerably increased.

Bad effects: The industrial centres attract population from rural areas and the density of population has increased in industrial centres. Lack of housing facilities has created many slums. The slum dwellers are suffering from lack of healthfacilities, housing, sanitation and water. The slums have become the centres of many anti-social activities. Recently in almost all the states, the Slum Development Boards have been set up to improve the conditions of slum dwellers. Excessive use of Technology and Computers in industries, has resulted in the removal of workers and this has become a big problem. There is a fear that the foreign capital investment may result in the economic exploitation of the country.

I Complete the following statements with appropriate words:
1) The first jute mill was started in India at ........................
2) The newsprint factory is located at .................. in Madhya Pradesh.
3) To encourage Iron and Steel industry under both private and public sector ............... was started.
4) Railway wheel and axle plant was established at .......................
5) The first cement factory used .................... as raw material.
II Answer the following questions in a sentence each:
1) What are manufacturing Industries?
2) How does industrialisation help in the defence of the country?
3) Which are the two types of manufacturing industries?
4) Which are the most important iron and steel industries under the private sector in India?
5) Which are the important products of jute?
III Study the relationship between the two words of the first pair and complete the second pair:
1) Muslin : Dacca :: Chintzes: ...................
2) Maharashtra : Cotton textiles:: West Bengal: ......................
3) Mumbai : Manchester of India :: Chotanagpur Plateau : .........................
4) Varanasi: Diesel engine :: Vishakhapatnam : .....................
5) Kulti : Iron: Rishra : .....................
6) Iron and steel: Mineral based :: Sugar : ...............
7) Titagarh : Paper: : Surat : ..............
8) Bokaro steel plant : III Five Year Plan :: Vishakhapatnam ................

IV Answer each of the following questions in two or three sentences:
1) How does industrialization help in urbanisation?
2) What were the causes for the decline of our industries during the British period?
3) For which industries is the Central Gangetic plain famous? Why?
4) Mention four agro -based industries.
5) What is Chotanagpur plateau called? Why?
6) Why are sugar factories concentrated near sugarcane growing regions?
7) Which are the raw materials required for paper industry?
8) Why are jute factories concentrated in West Bengal?
9) Which are the Iron and steel plants started during Second Five Year Plan?
10) What is the Importance of engineering Industry ?
11) “Consumption of cement is the index of a country’s progress” How?
12) Why is Mumbai called Manchester of India?

V Answer each of the following questions in four to six sentences:
1) What are the facilities available for development of industries in India?
2) Which are the factors required for the location of industries?
3) Mention the development of industries in India during the British period.
4) Mention briefly the growth of iron and steel industry In India after Independence.
5) Write about the progress of chemical fertilizer industry in India.
6) Which is the location of cotton textile industry in India?

VI Answer each of the following questions in about eight to ten sentences:
1) Which are the industrial regions of India? Why are they developed as industrial regions?
2) What is the need for manufacturing industries in India?
3) Explain the progress made by the transport industry in India?

VII Draw an outline map of India and mark the following:
1) Delhi 2) Varanasi 3) Mumbai 4) Ahmedabad 5) Rourkela
6) Bhilai 7) Bangalore 8) Bhadravathi 9) Chennai
10) Vishakhapatnam 11) Sindhri 12) Kolkata 13) Durgapur
14) Chotanagpur Plateau 15) Jamshedpur

Friday, May 29, 2009



Our India is in Asia. Of the world continents, Asia is the biggest. When compared to the size of Asia, the geographical area of India is small. Yet the diversities that are seen in Asia in terms of landscapes, climate, natural vegetation, soil types and such natural phenomena and the cultural phenomena are all found in India. Hence, we consider India as a subcontinent. India occupies only 2.5 per cent of the world’s land area but holds 16 per cent of the world’s population. It is a proud fact that one in every six persons of the world is an Indian. Because of the natural and cultural diversities, India has become significant as a land of subcontinent diversities.
India is a Peninsula of Asia. The Himalayan Mountains in the north and the Indian Ocean in the south have been separated, to form a big landmass. India is called a sub-continent because of varied relief features, climate, natural vegetation and diversities among the people. From ancient times India has reflected unity amidst diversity and has been famous for art, literature, dance, agriculture and industries. There are diversities of religions, languages, races and traditions among the people. These diversities in India have enriched its culture.

India occupies 2.4 percent of the total area of the world and is the seventh largest country. It is located fully in the northern and eastern hemispheres and spread over 80 N and 370 N latitudes and 680 E and 970 E longitudes. The total area of India is 32,87,263 sq. km. It extends over 2,933 km. from east to west and 3,214 km. from north to south. The total length of its coast, excluding its islands is 6,100 km. and including islands, such as Andaman islands, it is 7,516.5 km. The Tropic of Cancer (23½0 N. latitude) passes through the middle of the country and divides India into almost two equal halves. 82½0 East longitude, which passes near Allahabad, is the central meridian of India. The Indian Standard Time is based on this longitude. The land boundary of India has a length of 15200 km. China, Nepal and Bhutan in the north, Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh in the east, Pakistan in the north-west and Sri Lanka across Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar to its south are the neighbouring countries of India. The Arabian Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Indian Ocean in the south are the water bodies bordering India. Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep islands in the Arabian Sea are the island groups of India.

India is a Sovereign Democratic Republic. For smooth administration, it is divided into 28 states and 6 union territories, in addition to Delhi, which is a national capital with special status. Rajasthan is the largest state with an area of 3,42,239 sq. km. and Goa is the smallest state with an area of 3,702 sq. km.

PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA: India has a variety of landforms.These landforms were formed in different stages of the earth’s geological history. There are large landforms such as those of the world's biggest mountains, plateaus and the plains. They are the Himalayas in the north, the Deccan Plateau in the south and in between them the Indo-Gangetic Plains. The land features of India were all formed in different time periods. Therefore, they have different rock structures. The three major rocks known as the igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are all seen in the country.
India can be divided into four physical divisions. They are:

1) The Northern Mountains
2) The North Indian Plain
3) The Peninsular Plateau
4) The Coastal regions and Islands

1. THE NORTHERN MOUNTAINS: The Himalayan mountains form the northern mountain region of India. They are the highest mountain ranges in the world. They have the highest peaks, deep valleys, glaciers etc. These mountain ranges start from Pamir Knot in the west and extend up to Nagaland in the east. They extend over 2,500 km. They have been formed during different stages of continental drift of the Gondwana landmass. There are three parallel ranges in the Himalayas. They are (a) The Greater Himalayas or Himadri, (b) The Lesser Himalayas or Himachal and (c) The Outer Himalayas or Siwaliks.

a) Greater Himalayas or Himadri: This is the highest range of the Himalayan Mountains. The average height of this range is 6,000 mts. Some peaks are more than 8,000 mts. This range extends from Nanga Parbat in the west to Namche Barwa in the east. The highest peaks of the Himalayan mountains are in this range. Mt. Everest (8848 mts.) is the highest peak in the world. It lies between Tibet and Nepal. K2 or Mt. Godwin Austin (8,611mts.) in the Karakoram range is the highest peak in India and it is the second highest peak in the world. The other high peaks in this range are Kanchenjunga (8,598 mts.), Dhaulagiri, Makalu, Nanga Parbat, Nanda Devi and Gowri Shankar. This mountain range has many glaciers. The most important is the Gangotri
glacier which is the source of river Ganges. The passes in this mountain range are at a height of above 4,570 mts. The important passes are Shipki-la, which connects Gartok in Tibet with Simla in Himachal Pradesh across Sutlej river and Jelep-la which connects Llasa, the capital of Tibet with Kalimpong in West Bengal. They provide good transport facility and also attract tourists.

b) Lesser Himalayas or Himachal: It is about 3,600 mts. to 4,500 mts. high. It has parallel ranges and some of them are covered with snow and there are forests in the northern part of these ranges. Pir Panjal, Dhauladhar, Mahabharat and Mussoorie ranges are the important ranges. They contain many mountain valleys and hill stations. Kashmir valley, Kangra valley, Kulu valley and Lahul valley are important valleys. They are noted for scenic beauty and attract many tourists. Shimla, Ranikhet, Mussoorie, Nainital and Darjeeling are the important hill stations of these ranges.

c) Outer Himalayas or Siwaliks: They are the foothills of the Himalayas. These ranges are formed by the deposition of materials brought down by the rivers, which rise in the Himalayas and flow through these ranges. The average height of these ranges is about 1,300 mts. In these ranges there are many narrow plains, called doons, eg. Dehradoon.
The Himalayas play a very important role in the life of the Indians. (1) They stop the Monsoon winds and cause rainfall, (2) They are the birth place of many rivers, (3) They have plenty of mineral resources, (4) The rivers that flow on their slopes are helpful for irrigation and generation of hydro-electricity, (5) They attract tourists, (6) Their valleys are noted for the cultivation of fruits like apples and crops like tea and saffron and (7) They also stop the cold winds that blow from Central Asia (8) Many medical plants and herbs grow in these mountains.

2. NORTH INDIAN PLAIN: The North Indian plain is also called the Gangetic plain. The total area of this plain is about 6,52,000 sq. km. This plain is situated between the Himalayan Mountains in the north and the Peninsular plateau in the south and is formed by the alluvium brought down by the rivers. The plain is very fertile and agriculture is the main occupation of the people. Many perennial rivers flow across the plain. Since the land is almost flat, it is very easy to construct irrigation canals and have inland navigation. It has excellent roads and railways, which are helpful for the establishment of many industries. 40% of the total population of India lives here and it is called “The heart of India”.

3. PENINSULAR PLATEAU: It is the largest of India’s physical divisions. It is the oldest and is formed of hard rocks. The Narmada rift valley divides the peninsular plateau into two parts. They are the Malwa plateau and the Deccan plateau. The Malwa plateau is bounded by the Aravalli hills in the north-west and the Vindhya Mountains in the south. The total area of both these plateaus is 7,05,000 sq. km. and the shape is triangular. The Malwa plateau slopes towards the Gangetic Plain. The highest peak on the Aravallis is Mt. Guru Shikhar. Mt. Abu is the famous hill station on the Aravallis. The Deccan plateau is surrounded by the Satpura hills, the Mahadeo hills, the Maikala range, the Amarkantak hills and the Rajmahal hills in the north and the Western Ghats in the west and the Eastern Ghats in the east. The Western Ghats are
called Sahyadris in Maharashtra and Karnataka and further south they are called Nilgiris in Kerala and Annamalai range, Cardamom and Palani hills in Tamilnadu. Anaimudi in Annamalai range (2,695 mts.) is the highest peak in South India. The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats meet in the Nilgiri hills. The Western Ghats are higher than the Eastern Ghats and they are continuous. They are closer to the sea. The eastern Ghats are not very high and are not continuous. They are separated by river valleys. There are many hill stations in the Western Ghats. The important hill stations are Mahabaleshwara and Matheran. Ooty (Ootacamund) in the Nilgiri hills and Pachmari in the Mahadeo hills are also famous hill stations in the Peninsular plateau. The Peninsular plateau has economic importance because of its rich mineral resources and many rivers, which have waterfalls. They help in the generation of hydroelectric power. The plateau is also suitable for the cultivation of cotton and the dense forests are the home of many wild animals.

4. COASTAL PLAINS AND ISLANDS: Excluding the islands, the mainland of India has 6,100 kms length of coastline. It extends from Kachchh in Gujarat in the west to the Gangetic delta in the east. The coast of India is divided into western coast and eastern coastal plains. The western coastal plain lies between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea and from the Gulf of Kachchh in the north upto Cape Comorin (Kanyakumari) in the south, with a length of about 1,500 km. It is divided into Malabar coast, Karnataka coast(Canara), Konkan coast, Gujarat coast and Kachchh and Kathiawad peninsulas. The coast is straight and affected by the South-West Monsoon winds over a period of six months. So, there are only a few good harbours Mumbai, Marmagoa, Cochin, Mangalore, Karwar, Nhava-Sheva and Kandla are the important ports on the West Coast. The eastern coast extends from Kanyakumari to the Gangetic delta and between
the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. It consists of the deltas of rivers Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri. It is a broad and flat land. There are some salt water lakes or lagoons. Chilka Lake of Orissa and Pulicat Lake of Tamilnadu are the best examples. The Eastern Coast is divided into Coromandel coast in the south and Utkal coast in the north. The coastal regions of India are noted for agriculture, trade, industrial centres, tourist centres, fishing and salt making. They provide important hinterlands for the ports. These coastal plains play a very important role in the economic development of India. ISLANDS OF INDIA: There are 247 islands in India, out of which there are 204 islands in the Bay of Bengal and 43 islands in the Arabian Sea. There are a few coral islands in the Gulf of Mannar also. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal consist of hard volcanic rocks. The middle Andaman and Great Nicobar Islands are the largest islands of India. Lakshadweep islands in the Arabian Sea are formed by corals. The southern - most point of India is in the Greater Nicobar Island. It is called Indira Point (formerly it was called Pigmalion Point).

RIVERS AND LAKES OF INDIAIndia is a land of varied relief. Accordingly, there are several river systems in India. The rivers play a very important role in the economic development of India. They help to generate hydro-electricity, help in irrigation and inland navigation. The river systems of India can be divided into two groups, North Indian rivers and South Indian rivers. North Indian Rivers mostly rise in the Himalayan Mountains and are snowfed and rainfed. They are perennial in character. There are three river systems in North India. They are Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra. River Indus rises near Mount Kailash in Tibet and flows through narrow gorges towards the north-west, in Jammu-Kashmir and Punjab, then enters into Pakistan and reaches the Arabian Sea near Karachi. The important tributaries of river Indus are
Jhelum, Chenab, Beas, Ravi and Sutlej. River Ganges rises in the Gangotri glacier. It has many tributaries. The important tributaries are Yamuna, Ghaghara, Gandak Chambal Son and Kosi. River Yamuna joins the Ganges near Allahahad. River Chambal rises in Malwa plateau and joins
River Yamuna. River Son rises in Maikala range and reaches the Ganges near Patna. Along with river Brahmaputra, river Ganges flows into the Bay of Bengal. River Brahmaputra rises in Chemayungdung glacier in Tibet and flows towards the east as “Tsang-po” (meaning the purifier). It enters India through narrow gorges in the north-eastern part of the Himalayas, flows towards the south and joins river Ganges and forms a common delta. It is the largest delta in the world. Its area is 51,306 South Indian rivers have water and flow only during the rainy season and become dry during summer. They are seasonal rivers and dams are constructed across them to store water. Since they flow on the slopes of the ghats, they have many waterfalls, which are of great help for the generation of hydro-electricity. The rivers are divided into eastflowing and west-flowing rivers. Deccan plateau slopes towards the east, so most of the rivers which rise in the Western Ghats flow into the Bay of Bengal and form deltas. River Mahanadi rises in Siwaha range. River Godavari rises at Triambak near Nasik and has many tributaries. It is the longest river of peninsular plateau. River Krishna rises near Mahabaleshwara. It has many tributaries. River Bheema and River Thungabhadra are the important tributaries. Rivers Krishna and Godavari form one delta it is very fertile. River Cauvery rises at Talakaveri in Coorg district, flows towards the east and joins the Bay of Bengal. It also forms a delta. The Hemavathi, Simsha, Kapini, Bhavani etc., are the important tributaries
of river Cauvery. The two important west-flowing rivers of Peninsular plateau are river Narmada and Tapti (Tapi). They flow through rift valleys. River Narmada rises on Amarkantak plateau, flows west-wards through a narrow gorge called Marble Gorge and joins the Arabian Sea. River Tapti rises near Multai, flows west-wards through a deep rift valley and reaches the Arabian Sea. The other west-flowing rivers are short and swift. Important among them are rivers Kali, Sharavathi and Netravathi. They flow in Karnataka. There are a few natural lakes in India. The important lakes of India are Chilka and Pulicat. Both of them are salt-water lakes. In Kerala, there are a few backwaters. The most important fresh water lake of Kashmir is ‘Dal’ lake near Srinagar. ‘Nal’ lake near Ahmedabad is a noted bird sanctuary. “Magada Masur” lake near Dharwad in Karnataka is also worth mentioning.

I Answer the following questions in a sentence each:
1) To which latitudes and longitudes does India extend?
2) Which are the three ranges of the northern mountains?
3) Which are the island groups of India?
4) Where do the Western and Eastern Ghats meet?

II Answer the following:
1) Why is India called a sub-continent?
2) How are the Northern plains formed?
3) How are the outer Himalayas or Shivalik formed?
4) Why are the mountain passes important?
5) Explain the importance of the Himalayan mountains.
6) Why is the North Indian Plain called "The heart of India"?

III Study the first pair and complete the second:
1) Kerala : Nilgiris :: Maharashtra and Karnataka : .......................
2) Mt Gurushikar : Aravallis :: Ooty : ......................
3) River Ganges : Gangotri glacier :: River Brahmaputra : .....................
4) Tamilnadu : Lake Pulicat :: Orissa : ..............

IV Mention the differences between:
1) The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.
2) The Western Coast and the Eastern Coast.
3) The North Indian rivers and the South Indian rivers.

Thursday, May 28, 2009



India is a vast country and has different relief features. They are responsible for varied climatic conditions. India has very hot and very cold regions as well as regions with very heavy rainfall and very scanty rainfall. A large part of India has tropical monsoon climate. The climate of India has been influenced by its position, size and relief features. Monsoon winds are the main factors that determine the climate of India. They influence a large part of India. The Climate of India may be divided into four seasons-
1) Winter - From December to February
2) Summer - From March to May
3) South-West monsoons or rainy season - June to September
4) Retreating monsoons - October and November

1. WINTER: During this season, the sun’s rays fall vertically over the Southern Hemisphere. So, India gets oblique rays of the sun and the temperature decreases. Generally the days are bright due to sunlight, but the nights are cold. This fine weather is disturbed by the temperate cyclones which originate over the Mediterranean Sea and cause rainfall and snowfall in the north-western parts of India. North-East Monsoons blow from the land and are dry. However, they gather moisture while crossing the Bay of Bengal and cause rainfall along the Coromandel coast. It contributes to over 2% of the country’s annual average rainfall.

2. SUMMER: The summer in India begins from the middle of March and continues till the end of May. During this season the sun’s rays fall vertically over the northern hemisphere and hence the temperature is high in India. The north Indian plain has very high temperature because of long days and distance from the sea. Dust storms and hot dry winds are common. Ganganagar of Rajasthan, with a temperature of 520C, has the highest temperature in India. During this season the northern mountain regions and the plateaus of Peninsular India are cooler. Rainfall occurs at few places due to local heating and convection currents. The pre-monsoon showers that occur in April-May in Kerala are called Mango showers. Even Assam and West Bengal get some rain during this season. But the north-western regions do not get any rainfall. The coromandel coast
gets some rainfall. India gets about 10% of the total annual rainfall during this season.

3. RAINY SEASON: The rainy season starts in India from June and lasts till September. Most parts of India get about 75% of the rainfall during this season. By the end of May, the north-western region has high temperature and due to this, Rajasthan develops a low pressure area. This low pressure attracts the South-East trade winds from the south of the equator. When they cross the equator, they change their direction according to ‘Ferrel’s Law’ and they become South-West Monsoons. The word "Monsoon", comes from the Arabic word “mousim” which means season. In India, monsoon is taken to be the rainy season. They are moisture-laden winds
and give heavy rain to a greater part of India. The peninsular shape of India divides the South-West Monsoon winds into the Arabian Sea branch and Bay of Bengal branch. The Arabian Sea branch strikes the Western Ghats and causes heavy rainfall to the western side of the Western Ghats and the rainfall decreases as it advances towards Madhya Pradesh. The eastern side of Western Ghats becomes a rain-shadow area. The Bay of Bengal branch moves towards Myanmar, the north-eastern parts of India, foothills of the Himalayas and north Indian plain and causes heavy rainfall. As they move towards the west, the rainfall decreases. With the exception of Tamilnadu, most parts of India get rainfall from the South-West Monsoons.

4. THE RETREATING MONSOON SEASON: The South-West Monsoon winds start retreating from the beginning of October due to decrease in temperature and increase in pressure. They are called Retreating Monsoon winds. This is a transition period from the rainy season to the winter season. Cyclonic depressions are formed in the Bay of Bengal and they move towards the eastern coast. They give heavy rainfall to the coasts of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. They often cause widespread destruction to the coastal areas. India gets about 13% of the total annual rainfall during this season.

DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL: The rainfall in India is seasonal, uncertain and unevenly distributed. Most of the rain comes during the South-West Monsoon period. Rainfall may be too much or too little. There are also long dry periods in between. On the basis of the quantity of rainfall, we can divide India into five major rainfall regions.
1) Very low rainfall region (Less than 30 cms per year). It is found in Karakoram ranges, northern Kashmir and western parts of Kachchh and Rajasthan (Thar desert). Royli in Rajasthan gets only 8.3 cms of rainfall in a year. It is the region of very low rainfall In India.
2) Low rainfall region (30 cms. to 60 cms. per year). It is found in Zaskar range, parts of Punjab and Haryana, Central Rajasthan, Western Gujarat and the rain-shadow areas of the Western Ghats.
3) Moderate rainfall (60 cms. to 100 cms. per year). It is found over a greater part of India, excluding the areas of low rainfall and heavy rainfall. Most of the rain is from the South-West Monsoon winds.
4) Heavy rainfall region (100 cms. to 200 cms. per year). It is found in four separate areas, including a narrow belt of the western coast, eastern coastal belt, the foothills of the Himalayas and a part of north-east India.
5) Very heavy rainfall region (over 200 cms. per year). It is found on the western side of the Western Ghats (Agumbe, Kudremukh), the foothills of Himalayas, Meghalaya plateau (Shillong plateau) and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Mawsynram in Meghalaya plateau has recorded 1141 cms. of rainfall per year and it is the place which gets the heaviest rainfall in India.

Climate plays a very important role on the economic development of a nation. The South-West Monsoons control the agriculture of India, which is the main occupation of the people. When the monsoons fail, there is drought, and the crops also fail. When the monsoons are heavy, there are floods, they also cause destruction to life and property. Hence, it is called that, “the Indian agriculture is a gamble with the Monsoons”.

I Answer the following questions briefly:
1. What are the characteristics of the Monsoon winds?
2. Which factors influence the climate of India?
3. “Indian agriculture is a "gamble with monsoon” why?
4. From which winds do the Western Ghats get rainfall? How?
5. Rainfall occurs in few places in India during summer? Give reasons.
6. How does the South-West Monsoon winds bring rain to a greater part of India?

II Study the first pair and complete the second:
1. Winter : December to February :: Rainy season : ...................
2. Heavy rainfall : Mawsynram in Meghalaya plateau :: Very low rainfall : .................

III Fill in the blanks:
1. ........... winds bring rain to the Coromandel Coast.
2. In India .............. is the area with highest rainfall.
3. In Kerala, pre-monsoon rain is known as ..................
4. ................... type of climate is found in a greater part of India.

Wednesday, May 27, 2009



Transport means movement of goods and people from one place to another. Communication means conveying messages or news from one place to another. The development of civilization has also led to the development of Transport and Communication. The rapid growth of science and technology during the twentieth century has revolutionized transport and communication to a great extent. Today our world is shrinking because of communication. Transport and communication is available on land, water and air.

When we compare, the economic system of a nation to a human body, agriculture
and industry form its backbone and muscles and transport and communication are its nervous system. In the human body the intellectual functions take place through the nerves, likewise the economic progress takes place through transport and communication system
We find three types of transport system in India.
1. Land transport - roads, railways,tunnels and pipelines
2. Water transport - Inland waterways and coastal waterways
3. Air transport - Domestic and International

Roads: Construction of roads was important even during the Harappan civilization. Many kings gave priority to the construction of roads in the past. e.g. Ashoka, Harsha and others. During the Mughal period, the construction of roads was further developed. Sher Shah was responsible for the construction of roads like our present day National Highways (reconstructed a road from Delhi to Peshawar). During the British period, roads were constructed mainly for defence purpose. Lord Dalhousie laid the foundation for the construction of four National Highways.

India is a land of villages and is predominantly an agricultural nation. Roads are essential for the progress of villages and agriculture. Farmers can carry their products to the markets only along roads. Roads are also essential for the development of industries In forest and hilly areas where other means of transport cannot be provided, construction of roads is easier. Roads are feeders to railways. It is possible to provide door to door service through roads. Road transport is very convenient for short distance travel and to carry light goods. There are two types of roads, namely surfaced roads or metalled roads and unsurfaced roads or kuccha roads.
Surfaced roads are made of cement, concrete, bitumen and gravel. They are all season roads and are also called ‘pucca roads’.
Unsurfaced roads are mud roads. They are mostly found in rural areas. They are of little use during the rainy season. Prime Minister’s "Grameena Sadak" Plan intends to convert many unsurfaced roads into pucca roads. Besides, the recent “Golden Quadrilateral” plan is aimed at constructing a huge National Highway with six or eight lanes from Srinagar to Kanyakumari and from Kachchh to Kachar. Roads are classified into National Highways, State Highways, District roads and Village roads.
1) National Highways: The central government is responsible for the construction and maintenance of these roads. There are 56 National Highways in the country and they cover a length of about 52,010 km of length. They connect the capitals of the states and the ports.
2) State Highways: The State government constructs and maintains these roads. They are very important for the in states and we have about 11 lakh kms. length of these roads. These highways connect district headquarters, National Highways and important cities.
3) District Roads: The responsibility and maintenance of these roads is under the Zilla Parishad. These roads connect the Taluk headquarters with State and National Highways.
4) Village Roads: The village panchayats have the responsibility of construction and maintenance of these roads. They are the interior roads and connect villages with other roads.
India has a long land border and the protection of our border areas by our Jawans
is very important. Border roads are constructed for this purpose. The construction and maintenance of these roads is vested with the Border Road Development Authority. This authority has constructed a road from Manali in Himachal Pradesh to Leh in Kashmir. It is the highest constructed road in the world.

Railway Transport in India: Indian Railways are under the public sector. Most of the goods and people are transported by railways. The first railway line was constructed between Bombay and Thane (34 km.) in 1853, followed by the railway line from Calcutta to Raniganj in 1854 and Madras to Arkonam in 1856. Bangalore to Madras railway connection took place in 1864. Railways were constructed by the British for strategic reasons and commercial purposes. The raw materials were carried to the ports to be transported to Britain and their finished goods were distributed in India. However they proved beneficial to India in many ways.
Benefits of Railways: Railways are very helpful to provide infrastructural facilities.
They are very helpful to transport agricultural products to the markets. They supply
chemical fertilizers required by agriculture. They help to supply raw materials to industries
and to distribute the finished products. They play a very important role in internal and external trade. They are an excellent means for the movement of people. Roads are feeders to the railways and railways help in the development of road transport. About 80 % of the goods and 70% of the people are railway transport. Indian railway system is the largest network in Asia and the fourth largest in the world. It runs through 81,000 km. and every day there is a movement of 13,000 trains. There are 7,100 railway stations in India. Indian railways still consists of three gauges. They are broad gauge, meter gauge and narrow gauge. The narrow gauge is useful in mountain and hilly regions. In many places, meter gauge is being converted into broad gauge. Our government is working at a single gauge system since 1992. Our railways have provided jobs to 16.49 lakh people. It is the largest public sector undertaking in the world and has a record in the Guinness Book. The gangetic plain has a dense network of railways. The Northern mountains and the Peninsular Plateaus pose problems for the construction of railway lines. The Thar Desert has very few railway lines. Railways move along particular tracks and hence door to door service is not possible. To provide door to door service container services aided by road transport have been provided. For better administration of railway transport, railways in India are divided into sixteen railway zones. Modernisation of railways has been carried on in many ways.
Some of them are:
1) Steam engines are replaced by diesel engines and many railway tracks have
been electrified.
2) To provide better facilities to the travellers, air-condition coaches and sleeper
coaches have been provided.
3) Automatic signalling and communication systems have been introduced.
4) Many single tracks have been converted into double tracks to reduce the running time and meter gauge tracks are being converted into broad gauge.
5) Super fast express trains have been introduced for quick movement e.g. Shatabdi express and Rajdhani express.
6) Pantry service has also been provided to supply food and snacks to the travellers.
7) Security forces (R.P.F.) are in attendance to provide security for the passengers.
8) Many facilities are provided in railway stations for the benefit of travellers.
9) Underground train services and metro trains have been introduced in Delhi and Kolkata.

Pipeline transport: It is a new addition to our transport system. They provide a convenient mode of transport for oil, natural gas and mineral ores. They rule out transhipment delays and losses that occur to shift from one vehicle to another. At present all the oil fields are connected by pipelines to the refineries. Though the initial cost of laying the pipelines is high, their benefits are many. A pipeline has been laid from Kuduremukh to Mangalore to transport iron ore (in slurry form).

WATERWAYS: Waterways provide navigation facilities by means of boats and ships. The oceans, seas, lakes, rivers and canals form inland waterways. India has 7,515.5 kms of coastline and 14,500 km. of inland waterways. India has been famous for water transport since ancient days. During the British rule our waterways were neglected. After Independence our waterways were developed and today India has about 515 ships, 12 major ports, medium and small ports. 85% of our foreign trade is carried on by ships. Waterways are the cheapest means of transport because they do not involve expense on construction. They can carry huge quantity of goods.
Waterways are classified into three types. They are
2) Coastal shipping and
3) Ocean waterways.
Inland waterways: Rivers Ganges, Brahmaputra. Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishna, the Buckingham canal of Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu and the back water canals of Kerala are the important inland waterways of India. The North Indian rivers are useful for navigation throughout the year. There is a decline of inland waterways in recent years. The construction of railways and roads parallel to inland waterways and the construction of dams across the rivers are responsible for the decline of inland waterways. In Assam water transport along the river Brahmaputra is more important than land transport. The canals constructed from the dams are also useful for inland navigation. West Bengal has many canals which are useful for inland navigation. The Inland Waterways Authority was established in 1985 for the development of national inland waterways.

Coastal Shipping: India has a coastline of 7,515.5 kms. Many ships carry heavy and bulky commodities such as coal, salt, cement, food grains, chemical fertilizers, jute and iron ore from one port to another port.

Ocean Waterways: India occupies a central position in the Eastern Hemisphere and is favourably located. Our ocean transport also suffered during the British rule. Since Independence, our country has made great progress in ocean transport. About, 85% of our foreign trade is carried on by ships. Till recently foreign ships handled a major portion of it but now our ships handle goods to a great extent. India has 12 major ports. Kandla, Mumbai, Nhava Sheva (Jawaharlal Nehru port), Marmagoa, New Mangalore and Kochi are on the west coast. Tuticorn, Chennai, Vishakapatnam, Paradeep, Haldia and Kolkata are on the east coast.

Kandla: The construction of this port was started during the First Five Year Plan. It is at the head of the Gulf of Kachchh in Gujarat. Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and Uttaranchal are its hinterland.
Mumbai: It is the biggest, most spacious, natural and well-sheltered port of India. Its from Delhi in the north, to Karnataka in the south and Andhra Pradesh in the east. Nhava Sheva is a new major and modern seaport off Mumbai port. It has relieved the congestion on Mumbai port. Mumbai port is called the “Gate Way of India”.
Marmagoa: It is located at the entrance of Zuari estuary and serves Goa and Karnataka states. Iron ore and Manganese ore are mostly exported through this port.
New Mangalore Port: It is the most important port of Karnataka. It serves Karnataka and Kerala states. Iron ore, manganese, granite, timber, cashewnuts and tiles which are largely produced in Karnataka, are exported through this port. Raw materials, crude oil and food grains required by Karnataka are imported through New Mangalore port.
Kochi: It is another port on the west coast of India and serves Kerala, Tamilnadu and southern parts of Karnataka.
Tuticorn: It is a recently constructed port in the southern part of Tamilnadu. The
southern parts of Tamilnadu form its hinterland.
Chennai: It is the oldest port of India. It has an artificial harbour. It serves Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
Vishakhapatnam: It is the deepest landlocked and well-protected port of Andhra
Pradesh. It serves Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
Paradeep: It is the recently developed port in Orissa, situated in Mahanadi delta. It serves Orissa and Madhya Pradesh.
Kolkata: It is a natural harbour on the banks of the river Hooghli. The river Hooghli gets blocked with sand and mud and requires constant dredging. (Removal of sand and mud from the river floor is called dredging). Dredging is the main occupation of thousands of people, who live on the banks of river Hooghli. Kolkata is the second largest terminal port of South Asia. It serves the Gangetic and Brahmaputra plains. It is called the “Tea Port of India”. Large ships cannot reach this port.
Haldia: It is a newly developed port on the coast of Bay of Bengal, to overcome the
problems of congestion at Kolkata port.

Air transport is the quickest means of transport. India is a vast country and for
emergency purposes, air transport is very necessary in India. The regions which cannot be connected by land and water transport, can be connected by air transport e.g. northeastern parts of India and the regions which become isolated from other regions by floods. (Air transport is cheaper than other means of transport from Kolkata to Agartala). After Independence air transport has made great progress in India. Today almost all the capitals of the states are connected by air transport. Tourism has made great progress due to the development of air transport. Until recently air transport was under the public sector and now the private sector has also entered into this field. e.g. Jet Airlines, Sahara Airlines etc.
There are two separate corporations for operational purposes under the public
sector. They are 1) the Indian Airlines and 2) the Air India International.
Indian Airlines caters to the domestic needs and also connects our country with the neighbouring countries. Air India international connects India with other countries. Large airports and many other facilities are required for international air transport. At present there are five International Airports in India. They are, 1) Indira Gandhi Airport at Delhi 2) Sahara Airport at Mumbai 3) Subash Chandra Bose airport at Kolkata 4) Anna Airport at Chennai and (5) Thiruvananthapuram airport. Rajsansi airport at Amritsar has also been developed as an International airport. All efforts have been made to develop
an International Airport at Devanahalli near Bangalore. India has about 92 airports.

Air transport in India has some disadvantages. They are
1) air transport is very expensive when compared to other means of transport
2) it is difficult to transport bulky and heavy goods by air
3) the pressure from other means of transport is great.
But air transport is very convenient for quick movement of passengers and postal mail service, as also for defence purposes and during times of war, drought, floods and other natural calamities.

There are many evidences to show that even during the ancient times, communication system was in existence in India. Animals like horses and camels and birds like pigeons were used for the purpose of communication. Today the different means of communication are post, telegraph, radio, television, computer network, cinema, newspapers, etc. The postal system was well organized by the government even in the past. Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar of Mysore gave the name Anche (post) for the system that existed at that time to send mail from one place to another.

Need For communication media: India is a vast country and also a country of
villages, cities and towns. Villages are spread over long distances. There is a great
need for communication. Many a time, due to natural calamities, different regions are cut off from each other and it is very essential to maintain communication during such times. Communication is also very essential for the economic progress of the country.
Post and Telegraph system: Modern postal system was introduced in India in 1837
and telegraph system in 1851. However, great progress has been achieved in post and telegraph after Independence. Now there are 1,60,000 post offices in India (there were 1,57,102 in 1990). Mail is carried by land, water and air. Apart from carrying letters from one place to another, post offices render many other services also. They are:
1) they undertake remittance of money from one place to another.
2) they help to carry insured parcels from one place to another safely,
3) through the Savings Bank Service and National Savings Certificates they encourage thrift and saving
4) they accept payments to be made to the government.
To send mail safely and quickly, some new devices have been adopted. The
important ones are Postal Index Number (PIN) in 1972. According to it each post office is assigned an index number and mention of this index number on the address enables the mail to reach that post office without any delay. In the same way Quick Mail Service (QMS) was introduced in 1975 and Speed Post was introduced in 1986. Some post offices have the telegraph service also. Now Telephone facility has been extended to the rural areas. It has resulted in the decline of Telegraph service.
Telephone Media: National Telex service which was introduced in 1963, has enabled the customers to exchange ideas directly among themselves, Telephone network has spread over the entire country and customers are getting many benefits. By the year 2000 there were 14,300 telephone exchanges in the country, out of which 11,000 were in villages. Subscribers Trunk Dialling (STD is also called Straight Trunk Dialling) enables the subscribers to communicate with each other directly within the country, In the same way International Trunk Dial (ISD) service was introduced in 1973. It enables the subscribers to communicate with the people of other countries directly. Automatic telephone service has facilitated speedy communication. Now we find cellular phones which can be carried in pockets for communication. Along with these facilities, computers also help in communication. Important among them are “Internet, E-mail and fax”. Internet facility connects the computers of the world with each other, Thousands of Universities, Government organizations, Business centres all over the world are able to get or exchange information with each other. People have also benefited from them.
E-mail: E-mail or electronic mail also helps to send messages from one place to
another at a greater speed. It is primarily a service to store and forward messages. The messages are sent and stored electronically in the mail box waiting for the time till they are retrieved. Beside the messages, even pictures, information regarding business and entertainment programmes can be sent or received.
Fax: Fax is a machine. It helps any message in its original form to be received and
printed. E-mail, Cell phones and Satellite services help this machine. In addition to all these devices, World Wide Web (WWW) collects information through computers and gives it to us whenever required.
International Telecommunication Satellite Consortium (INTELSAT): It a partnership of nations, which uses global satellites for communication purposes. Indian satellite stations at ARVI near Pune and DOON near Dehradoon have established high frequency radio, television, telex and telegraph circuits. This has helped to develop and strengthen friendly relations with other parts of the world.
Radio and Television: Radio and television plays a very important role in mass
communication. They are of great help in educating and entertaining masses. They show a variety of programmes such as entertainment, educational and informative programmes. They also give Information regarding weather, market trends, political and international events. Sometimes direct discussion programmes are also arranged with different catogaries of people on various subjects.
All India Radio was started in 1930. It was in Mysore city that the term “AKASHAVANI” was coined. There are about 171 broadcasting stations in India (2000 A.D). In 1959 television was introduced in India as a part of radio. It made rapid progress and in 1976 it was delinked from radio and given the name Doordarshan. Colour television was started in 1982. Now television has grown into one of the biggest networks in the country and has about 520 transmitting stations. The country’s highest television tower at Pitampura near Delhi is 235 mts. high. It is dedicated to the memory of Dr. B.R.Ambedkar. Today there are many private channels which operate television networks.
Print Media: Newspapers and journals come under print media. There are more than 2200 dailies in different languages printed In India. The number of dailies is on the increase. About 41 newspapers have a history of more than 100 years. The oldest and still existing newspaper is Bombay Samachar in Gujarathi language. It was started in 1822. Newspapers are printed in India in about 93 languages. With growing literacy in India, the press has a bright future. There is a great need for independent, thought provoking and enlightened newspapers. Apart from dailies there are many periodicals, journals, weeklies, and magazines. They deal with entertainment, sports, cultural events, academic pursuits, political trends and general topics. They are in English and also in the regional languages.

I Complete the following statements with appropriate words:
1) The foundation for four national highways was laid by ................during the British period.
2) Prime Minister’s ..........plan intends to convert many un-surfaced roads into pucca roads.
3) During the First Five Year plan period construction of a major port was started at ............
4) A new port called ............. off Bombay, has latest traffic and cargo handling equipment.
5) To overcome the problems of Kolkata port........Port was constructed on the coast of Bay of
6) The international Airport at Amritsar is called ...............
7) The oldest and still existing newspaper of India is ...............

II Answer each of the following questions in a sentence:
1) Which are the two types of roads?
2) Why are surface roads called all season roads?
3) Which places were connected by the first railway line in India?
4) Give two examples for Superfast express trains in India.
5) Which are the important commodities carried by pipelines.
6) Which is the biggest natural port of India?
7) Which is the oldest port of India?
8) Where was the term “Akashavani” first coined?
III Study the relation between the words given in the first pair and complete the second pair:
1) Kandla: Gujarat:: Pradeep : ..............
2) Delhi: Indira Gandhi Airport :: Mumbai : .............
3) Leh: Kashmir :: Manali : ...........
4) District roads : Zilla Parishad: Border roads: ...............
5) New Mangalore: Karnataka:: New Tuticorn : ................
6) Marmagoa : Zuari : : Kolkata: .........

IV Answer each of the following questions in two or three sentences:
1) Mention the different means of transport.
2) Which are the different types of water transport?
3) Which are the different types of roads in accordance with their construction and maintenance?
4) What are the uses of roads in India?
5) What is the advantage of pipelines in India?
6) Why is inland water transport losing its importance now a days?
7) What do you mean by STD? What is its importance?
8) Why is air transport not popular in India?
9) What is the part played by radio as a communication media?
10) What are the programmes launched by television for general public?
11) What is dredging? Where is it important?
12) What is E-mail?
13) What are the main functions of Border Road Development Authority and what is its greatest achievement?

V Answer the following questions in 4 to 5 sentences each:
1) “Roads have more advantages than railways” How?
2) What are the steps taken to modernize our railways?
3) What is internet?
4) What is the importance of news papers?

VI Answer the following questions in about 8 to 10 sentences each:
1) Which are the different types of water transport ? What is the need for water transport in India?
2) Explain the importance of any four ports on the East Coast of India.

Balance of trade: Relation between nation’s exports and imports. Balance of payment: It is a comprehensive record of economic transactions of the residents of a country with the rest of the world during the given period of time. Exports: When a nation sends its home manufactured products to outside countries, these are called exports. Foreign Exchange: It is the exchange of currency of one country with the currency of another country. Golden quadrilateral: It is a network of roads which connect Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkatta.
Harbor: It is a deep coast of sea which provides shelters to the sea going vessels. Imports: When citizens of a country consume the products of other countries these are known as imports. Mass communication: The means of communication through which one can communicate with several people at the same time.


The three major means of transportation are:
i. Land transport:
a. Road transport
b. Pipeline transport
c. Railway transport

ii. Water transport:
a. Inland waterways
b. Seaways and Oceanic waterways

iii. Air transport:
a. International airways
b. National airways

Road Transport in India (for 1 mark questions)

i. About 85 per cent of passenger and 70 per cent of freight traffic are carried
by roads every year.
ii. Road transport is relatively suitable for shorter distance travel.
iii. The first serious attempt was made in 1943 when ‘Nagpur Plan’ was drawn. This
plan could not be implemented due to lack of coordination among the princely
states and British India.
iv. Roads continue to concentrate in and around urban centres. Rural and remote areas
had the least connectivity by road.
v. Sher Shah Suri built the Shahi (Royal) road from the Indus Valley to the Sonar
Valley in Bengal. This road was renamed the Grand Trunk (GT). It connected
Calcutta and Peshawar. At present, it extends from Amritsar to Kolkata. It is
bifurcated into 2 segments: (a) National Highway (NH)-1 from Delhi to
Amritsar, and (b) NH- 2 from Delhi to Kolkata.

Five classifications of roads in India:
For the purpose of construction and maintenance, roads are classified as
i. Nation Highways:
a. These roads are constructed and maintained by the Central Government.
b. These roads are meant for inter-state transport and movement of defence
men and material in strategic areas.
c. These also connect the state capitals, major cities, important ports,
railway junctions, etc.
d. The National Highways constitute only 2 per cent of the total road length
but carry 40 per cent of the road traffic.
e. The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) has the responsibility
of development, maintenance and operation of National Highways.

ii. State Highways:
a. These are constructed and maintained by state governments.
b. They join the state capitals with district headquarters and other
important towns.
c. These roads are connected to the National Highways.
d. These constitute 4 per cent of total road length in the country.
iii. District Roads:
a. These roads are the connecting link between District Headquarters and the
other important nodes in the district.
b. They account for 14 per cent of the total road length of the country.

iv. Rural Roads:
a. These roads provide links in the rural areas.
b. About 80 per cent of the total road length in India are categorised as
rural roads.
c. The rural roads’ density is very low in hilly, plateau and forested areas
because these are influenced by the nature of the terrain.

v. Other Roads:
a. Border Roads:
i. These are in the northern and north-eastern boundary of the country.
ii. The Border Road Organisation (BRO) constructs and maintains these
iii. These roads are meant for increasing economic development of border areas and for strengthening defence.
iv. BRO has constructed world highest motorable roads in Leh (Ladakh).

b. The international highways:
i. These are meant to promote the harmonious relationship with the
neighbouring countries by providing effective links with India.

Important National Highway Projects:
i. Golden Quadrilateral National Highway:
a. It will be 5,846 km long with 4/6 lane.
b. It is a high density traffic corridor and will connect India’s four big metro
cities of Delhi-Mumbai-Chennai-Kolkata.
c. It will reduce the time- distance and cost of movement among the mega
cities of India.

ii. North-South Corridors:
a. It aims at connecting Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir with Kaniyakumari in
Tamil Nadu.
b. It will be 4,076 km long road.

iii. East-West Corridor:
a. It connects Silchar in Assam with the port town of Porbandar in Gujarat.
b. It will be 3,640 km long road.
The uneven distribution of roads in India:
i. Density of roads is lowest in Jammu and Kashmir and highest in Kerala.
ii. The density of road is high in most of the northern states and major southern
iii. It is low in the Himalayan region, north-eastern region, Madhya Pradesh and

Why does this variation occur?
i. Nature of terrain: Construction of roads is easy and cheaper in the plain areas
while it is difficult and costly in hilly and plateau areas. Therefore, not only the
density but also the quality of roads is relatively better in plains as compared to
roads in high altitude areas, rainy and forested regions.
ii. The level of economic development: The density and quality of roads is high in
urban areas. Therefore all important towns in north India have emerged as
important nodes.

Rail Transport (for 1 mark questions)
i. First Railway was introduced in 1853, from Bombay to Thane covering a distance of 34 km.
ii. Indian Railways is the largest government undertaking in the country.


1. Write short notes on means of Communication.

MEANS OF COMMUNICATION: Means of communication are those means which are helpful in communicating news and information from one person to another sitting thousand of kilometer away. The means of communication are posts and telegraphs, telephone, fax, teleprinters, print media, radio, television, wireless and satellite.They are awakening masses towards world happening.

2. Write a short notes on means of transport and communication.
(Ans) Means of Transport:
  1. Means of transport are the carriages that transport men and material from one place to another.
  2. The major modes of transport today are the railways, the roadway, waterways, the airways and the pipelines.
  3. They promote national unity and integrity.

Meansof Communication:

  1. Means of communication are those means which are helpful in communicating news and information from one person to another sitting thousands of kilometers away.
  2. The means of communication are posts and telegraphs, telephone, fax, teleprinters, print media, radio, television, wireless and satellite.
  3. They have made the world shrink considerably.

Q. 3. What do you mean by unfavorable balance trade?

Ans. If the value of imports of a country is more than the value of its exports, than the situation is known as an unfavorable balance of trade.

Q. 4 What are Super Highways? Name any two roads which have been constructed under this project.

Ans. The Super Highways have been planned to meet the requirements of the fast movement of traffic. The government has launched a major road development project linking Delhi-Kolkatta-Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane Super Highway:
i). The North-South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu).
ii). East-West Corridor connecting Silcher (Assam) and Porbander (Gujarat).

Q. 5 What are National Highways? What is their importance? Mention any two points.

Ans. The main roads which are constructed and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (C.P.W.D.) are known as National Highways. These roads connect the state capitals, big cities, and important ports. Importance:
i). The National Highways maintain the availability of essential products. The state to state trade is possible because of the National Highways.
ii). All the essential products like raw materials, finished products, vegetables, food grains, etc. are transported through these roads.

Q. 6 Distinguish between Metalled Roads and unmetalled Roads

Ans. Metalled roads
i). These are made up of cement, concrete or even bitumen of coal.
ii). These are all weathered rocks.
iii). Most of the urban roads are metalled roads.

Unmetalled roads
i).These are made up of soil.
ii). These go out of use in the rainy season.
iii).Most of the rural roads are generally unmetalled roads.

Q. 7 What are the major problems of Indian roads?

i). The road network is inadequate in India as compared to the demand and volume of traffic.
ii). The condition of most of the roads is very poor, as these become muddy during the rainy season.
iii). They are usually highly congested in cities.
iv) . Most of the highways lack the essential side amenities like telephone booths, emergency health services, police stations, etc.

Q. 8. What is the importance of ports for the Indian economy?

i). The major ports of India handle about 15,000 cargo vessels per annum.
ii). 70% of the cargo handled at these ports is for overseas trade.
iii). These ports are the main source of trade.
iv). The trade helps the economy in earning foreign exchange.

Q. 9. Mention any four features of the telecom network of India.

i) . India has one of the largest telecom network in Asia.
ii). Excluding urban places, more than two-third of the villages in India has already been covered with Subscriber Trunk Dialing (STD).
iii). In order to strengthen the flow of information from the grassroots to the higher level, the government has made special provisions.
iv). India has one of the cheapest telecom networks in the world.

Q. 10. What are the advantages of roads over the railways?

i). Roads require less investment as compared to the railways.
ii). These can be built at higher altitudes and at any place.
iii). Road transportation is easy and is within the reach of the common man. Moreover, it is available for 24 hours.
iv). Maintenance cost is also low.
v). Road transportation has the merit of offering door to door service.

Q. 11. Why are the means of transport and communication called the lifelines of a nation and its economy?
Radio, television, telephone, e-mail, telegraph, etc. are the main means of communication whereas the railways, airways, buses, trucks, cars, etc are the main means of transportation.

i). To provide link: Transportation is the lifeline of the country. This connects one part of the country with another part, and helps in providing essential products to all the places and the people.
ii). Development of Economy: The means of transport and communication help the industries to get raw materials, and its finished products are transported by the railways, and roadways. Agriculture also depends greatly on transportation.
iii). National and cultural integration: India is a very vast country. Transport network brings people of different castes, creed, colours, religions, languages, and regions near to each other.
iv). Nervour system: The means of communication together act like nervous system in the human body. We can know what is happening in other parts of the nation and the world only through this media.

Q. 12 Why are the railways so important today?

i). Indian railway carries most of the long distance passengers’ traffic and 80% o f the total freight of the country.
ii). Iron and steel industry solely depends upon the railways as they need it to transport raw materials and finished goods of the industry from one place to another.
iii). The Indian railways provide employment to a huge number of people in the country.
iv). Railways play a significant role in the integration of the country by bringing different people and regions together.
v). They carry big chunks to goods from the place of production to the ports and, vice versa.

Q.13. State three points regarding the importance of pipelines in transportation.

i). Transportation through pipe lines rules out delay and transportation losses. Many fertilizers plants and thermal power stations are benefiting by the supply of gas through pipelines.
ii). Though the initial cost of laying pipelines is high, but the running cost is very low.
iii). It maintains a continuous supply of gas and oil.
iv). The pipes can be laid through difficult terrains as well as under the sea.
v). The far inland locations of important refineries like Barauni, Mathura, Panipat, etc. could be thought of only because of the pipelines.

Q.14. What is the importance of waterways?

i). It is the most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods.
ii). It is a fuel efficient and environment friendly mode of transport.
iii). The element of wear and tear is very less.
iv).More than 95% of the country’s trade volume is moved by the sea.
v). With the development of the National waterways, it has become a main source of transportation for the natural trade.

Q. 15. Why is the air transport more useful nowadays? Write four reasons.

i). The Airways is the fastest means of transport and saves a plenty of time.
ii). It can cover very difficult terrains like high mountains, dreary deserts, thick forests and long stretches of seas with great ease.
iii). The airways also help in increasing the trade, especially that of perishable products.
iv). It is a comfortable, or rather luxurious and prestigious mode of transport.

Q.16. How can the different mass communication media educate the people?

i). The radio and television are the main sources of mass communication.
ii). The Electronic Media provides distance education to the people. Programmes like the University Grants Commission U.G.C. help the viewers of learn a lot.
iii). Many programmes related to agricultural productivity, industrial productivity, are shown.
iv). Many programmes related to health and other problems of common people are also shown.
v). These media make people politically aware about their country, and the rest of the world.

Q.17. Distinguish between Railway junction and Sea port.

Ans. Railway Junction
i). The railway junction is the main source of internal trade.
ii). The railway junction is generally found on land.
iii). Transportation of goods and services takes place quickly.

i). A Seaport is generally used for external trade.
ii) Seaport is found in coastal areas.
iii) Transportation of goods and services is slow in a seaport.

Q. 18. Distinguish between Personal communication and mass communication.

Ans. Personal communication
i). Personal means of communication are those through which only personal messages are exchanged.
ii). These can be used by an individual for his personal activity.
iii). Telephone, mobiles, postal services, post cards etc are the main source of personal communication.

Mass communication
i). Mass communication means are those through which one can communicate with several people at the same time.
ii). These can be used by the government to create awareness among the people about various national programmes and policies.
iii). Radio, Television, newspaper, etc is the main source of mass communication.

Q. 19 What is the importance of tourism?

1. Tourism helps in earning foreign exchange.
2. It provides direct as well as indirect employment to the people.
3. It promotes national integration.
4. It supports cottage and handicraft industry because foreigners like to purchase these products.
5. It helps in developing friendly relations with other countries, and promotes international understandings.

Q.20. Who maintains districts roads?

Ans. Zila Parisad.

Q. 21 What is the objective of the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojna?

Ans. Under the scheme, special provisions are made so that every village in the country is linked to a major town in the country by all season motorable roads.
i). Silcher and Porbandar are the extreme stations which are connected by the East-West Corridor.
ii). Delhi and Amritsar are the extreme cities which are connected by the NH 1.
iii). The border roads are maintained by the Border Roads Organisation.
iv). The length of road per 100 sq km is known as the density of roads.
v). The total length of inland navigation waterways of India is 14,500 km.
vi) Port: The part of harbor where goods are loaded and unloaded from the ships is called a port.
vii). Vishakhapatnam is the deepest landlocked port.

(Q.22) Highlight the importance of Indian Railways.

Railway transport is considered as one of the important means of transportation due to the following reasons:

  1. They are very useful particularly for carrying heavy goods.
  2. They can carry goods to comparatively longer distance as compared to the other means of transport.
  3. They are comparatively cheaper than other means of transport.
  4. They give employment to large number of people. It is estimated that they employ about 16, 03,000 workers as regular employees and 2, 00,000 as casual labour.
  5. They connect all important towns, important ports and important aerodromes with each other.
Q.) Discuss the contribution of Air India and Indian Airlines in the air transport of India.
Contributions of Air India:
  1. It handles foreign traffic passengers and cargo.
  2. With 27 craft and 16,714 employees, Air India operates 35 destinations through arrangements with foreign airlines.

Contributions of Indian Airlines:

  1. It is the major domestic air carrier of the country.
  2. It operates 63 domestic stations together with its wholly owned subsidiary.
  3. Indian Airlines also operates17 international stations mainly in the south East Asia and Middle East.
(Q.) What are the advantages and disadvantages of pipelines?

Advantages of Pipelines:
  1. They are ideally suited to transport the liquids and gases.
  2. Pipelines can be laid through difficult terrains as well as under
  3. It involves very low energy consumption.
  4. It needs very little maintenance.
  5. Pipelines can be laid through under water.

Disadvantages of Pipelines

  1. It is not flexible, i.e., it can be used only forcertain fixed points.
  2. Its capacity cannot be increased once it is laid.
  3. It is difficult to make security arrangements for pipelines.
  4. Underground pipelines cannot be easily repaired.
  5. Detection of leakage is also difficult.
(Q.) What are the two groups of satellite system of India?
On the basis of configuration and purposes, satellite system in India can be grouped into two:
  1. Indian National Satellite System (INSAT): INSAT or the Indian National Satellite System is a series of multipurpose Geo-Stationary satellites launched by ISRO to satisfy the telecommunications, broadcasting, meteorology, and "search and rescue" needs of India. Commissioned in 1983, INSAT is the largest domestic communication system in the Asia-Pacific Region. It is a joint venture of the Department of Space, Department of Telecommunications, India Meteorological Department, All India Radio and Doordarshan.

  1. Indian Remote Sensing System (IRS):

The Indian Remote Sensing satellites are the main-stay of National Natural Resources Management system (NNRMS), for which Department of Space (DOS) is the nodal agency, providing operational remote sensing data services. Data from the IRS satellites is received and disseminated by several countries all over the world. With the advent of high resolution satellites, new applications in the areas of urban sprawl, infrastructure planning and other large scale applications for mapping have been initiated.

(Q.) What do you understand by Golden Quadrilateral?

The Golden Quadrilateral is India's largest expressway project. It is the most ambitious project in India which is the extension of the national highways in such a way that it connects all the four major metropolitan cities. It consists of 5,846 kilometers of four/six lane expressways connecting Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai.

This project is scheduled for substantial completion by December 2004. As of January 31, 2004, 2,482 kilometers have been completed. The major routes of the Golden quadrilateral are as follows:

  1. Delhi – Mumbai (NH. 8)
  2. Delhi – Kolkata (NH. 2)
  3. Mumbai – Chennai (NH.4)
  4. Chennai – Kolkata (NH. 5)


The current status of the Golden Quadrilateral project is as follows:



National Highway No.

Length Completed (km)

Total Length (km)

Percent Completed (%)

As of (date)







30 Apr 2007







Nov 2006







30 Apr 2007







30 Apr 2007

Q.) What are the factor that influence the Inland waterways?
The factors affecting Inland waterways are:
  1. Rivers and canals should have regular flow of sufficient water.
  2. The presence of waterfalls, cataracts and sharp bends in the course of river hinders the development of waterways.
  3. Silting of the river bed reduces the depth of water and creates problems for navigation. Desilting of river beds is costly affair.
  4. Diversion of water for irrigation purposes reduces the quantity of water and should be done carefully.
  5. There should be sufficient demand for waterways to make it economically viable mode of transportation.

Q.) What are the disadvantages of road transport?
(5 Marks)
Disadvantages of Road Transport
  1. Roadways are not much suited to long distance travel.
  2. Heavy commodities like coal and iron etc. cannot be easily transported by roads.
  3. The rate of road accidents has increased with increase in road traffic.
  4. The rapid increase in vehicles has resulted in air pollution.
  5. It is more costly than the rail transport.

(Q.) Mention the main advantages of Road Transport.
Advantages of Road Transport
  1. Roads plays a very important role in the transportation of goods and passengers for short and medium distances. It is comparatively easy and cheap to construct and maintain roads.
  2. Roads can negotiate high gradients and sharp turns which railways cannot do. As such, roads can be constructed in hilly areas also.
  3. Roads act as great feeders to railways and ports. Without good and sufficient roads, railways cannot collect sufficient produce to make their operation possible, roads serve as hinterlands of the ports.
  4. Road transport is more flexible than the rail transport. Buses and trucks may be stopped anywhere and at any time on the road for loading and unloading passengers and goods whereas trains stop only at particular stations.
  5. Perishable commodities like vegetables, fruits and milk are transported more easily and quickly by roads than by railways. Road transport system establishes easy contact between farms, fields, factories and markets and provides door to door service.

(Q.) What are national highways?
National Highways are those roads which are of national importance and connect different states with one another. They are maintained or constructed by the central government.

Q.) Mention different gauges of Indian railway.
(3 Marks)

Railway network comprises of three gauges:
1. Broad Gauge : The distance between rails in broad gauge is 1.676 metre. The total length of broad gauge lines is 46,807 km which accounts for 74.14 per cent of the total lenth of rail rutes in the country.

2. Metre Gauge: The distance between the rails is one metre. It runs over 13,290 km covering 21.02 per cent of the total route length.

3. Narrow Gauge : The distance between the rails in this case is 0.762 metre or 0.610 metre. Nearly 4.94 per cent of the total length of the Indian Railways is narrow gauge, which accounts for 3,124 km of route length. It is generally confined to hilly areas.

(Q.) Explain with reasons how the conversion of different railway gauges to unigauge is beneficial for transportation.
  1. Larger Capacity: If the trains continue to run on Meter Gauges to Narrow Gauge the coaches will be of smaller sizefor boththe passengers and goods, and their capacity shall be smaller. On the other hand if the trains run on the unigauge or broad gauge, the coaches will be of big size having larger capacity to carry more passengers and more goods.
  2. Higher Speed: Much time is being wasted at present in changing from one meter gauge to the other. If unigauge system of railways is employed the trains can gain higher speed.
  3. Cheaper Transportation: Different gauges not only cause much inconvenience to the public but also make transportation somewhat costly. But the use of unigauge system of railways proves not only convenient for the public but also results in cheaper transportation.

(Q.) Write short notes on means of Communication.

MEANS OF COMMUNICATION: Means of communication are those means which are helpful in communicating news and information from one person to another sitting thousand of kilometer away. The means of communication are posts and telegraphs, telephone, fax, teleprinters, print media, radio, television, wireless and satellite.They are awakening masses towards world happening.

(Q.) Define Communication. Also mention the major means of communication.
Communication is a movement of matter or energy between two parts of the universe. This matter or energy can bethe carrier of information. Communication refers to conveyance of information from the place of origin to the place of destination through a channel. Postal services, telephone, telegraph and fax services, internet and satellites are some of the major means of communication.

(Q.) Mention the three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country.
The three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country are:
  1. From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), via Guwahati, Barauni to Haldia, via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri.
  2. From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab, via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat. It has branches to connect Koyali Chakshu and other places.
  3. Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh. It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan, Sahajahanpur, Babrala and other places in Uttar Pradesh.
(Q.) What are the advantages of integrated electricity grid system?
(3 Marks)

The advantages of integrated grid system are:

  1. Surplus power from one area can be transmitted to the power deficit area.
  2. Electricity can be immediately rushed from one area to another area in the event of any break-down.
  3. It serves the purpose of producing a balanced distribution of electricity in different areas for its optimum use.
(Q.) Write short notes on Personal communication and Mass communication?
Personal Communication:
Personal communication helps in communicating information and ideas from one person to another person. It is made through postal network and telecom supported by computers. This modern communication technology has proved to be extremely helpful in rapid development of India’s economy and society.
Mass Communication:
It is meant for communicating information and ideas to the masses. The two important means of mass communication are:
  1. Print Media
  2. Electronic Media
(Q.) What are the main functions of computers?
The main functions of computers are:
  1. It accepts data as input. It stores data, keeps it in its memory, and recalls the same as and when required.
  2. It processes data as per instructions given to get required information.
  3. It communicates the information as output.

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