Sunday, November 29, 2009

Do you want me to explain toposheets again?

double click the picture

HELLO,
We will start revising toposheets again. I will be publishing few questions on this toposheets. Before that I want you to study the toposheets very carefully. Double click the toposheet and view it. Now, the question is what to view? Yea, first of all have a quick glance of the t
oposheet. Go through each grid square. See the colours, the drainage pattern, settlements, contours, rivers, roads, tracks, etc. Ok, I will
come back soon.

Few questions for you to answer. Write down or take the print out the questions before you double click on the toposheet.
a. What is meant by R. F. ? What is the R.F. of this Sheet?
b. What is a scale? What is the scale in this toposheet?
c. Name the village where contour of 200 meteres crosses Varka
Nala.
d. Give the four figure grid reference of the following:
i. settlement Bantawada
ii. Village Kotda
iii. The triangulated height of 277 metres

e. Name the village where contour of 200 metres crosses Varka Nala.
f. In which quarter of the map extract do you expect the lowest area to be? Why?
g. In what two ways does the river bed of Sipu convey that it flows through a region of seasonal rainfall?
h. Give the six-figure grid reference of the following.
i. tringualted height 198 in village Jegol
ii. the confluence of Varka Nala with Sipu river.
iii. Survey tree near Gnangudra settlement.
iv. temple in Jkhapura

i. What are the conventional signs near north east part of the sheet near open mixed jungle.
j. furnish two evidences to suggest that the village Jigol is rather better off than the other villages.
k. Name any two methods by which relief can be shown on the map.

Answers will be published next week. Send your answers to brhector21@gmail.com

Tuesday, November 24, 2009

ANSWERS FOR THE TOPOSHEET TEST

double click on the picture and then again click on it

a. What is meant by R. F. ? What is the R.F. of this Sheet?
R.F. means Representative Fraction.It is the ratio between the distances on the map to its corresponding distance on actual ground. The RF on this map is 1:50,000

b. What is a scale? What is the scale in this toposheet?
Scale is the ratio between the distance of any two points on the map and the actual distance of the same points on the ground.
The scale of the given map extract is 2 cm: 1 km or 1:50,000

c. Name the village where contour of 200 meteres crosses Varka Nala.
Odhava village
d. Give the four figure grid reference of the following:
i. settlement Bantawada - 9978
ii. Village Kotda - 8593
iii. The triangulated height of 277 metres - 8998
e. Name the village where contour of 200 metres crosses Varka Nala.
Odhava village
f. In which quarter of the map extract do you expect the lowest area to be? Why?
South-west quarter of the map is the lowest area because both rivers flow towards the south-west and spot heights are also decreasing in that direction.
g. In what two ways does the river bed of Sipu convey that it flows through a region of seasonal rainfall?
Sipu river flows through a region of seasonal rainfall because we can see an exposed broad sandy riverbed and a thin water channel. We can also see several cart tracks and pack tracks going through the river bed.
h. Give the six-figure grid reference of the following.
i. tringualted height 198 in village Jegol - 854905
ii. the confluence of Varka Nala with Sipu river. - 834927
iii. Survey tree near Gnangudra settlement. - 876934
iv. temple in Jkhapura -934767 or 935768 (approx)
i. What are the conventional signs near north east part of the sheet near open mixed jungle.
These are the broken ground.
j. Furnish two evidences to suggest that the village Jigol is rather better off than the other villages.
Village Jigol has many lined wells for irrigation purposes and several cart tracks.
k. Name any two methods by which relief can be shown on the map.
Relief can be shown on the map by contour lines and spot heights.

Thursday, November 19, 2009

Hello, If you are a regular visitor, plz write a comment

Hello,
Welcome to this blog! If you are a regular visitor of this blog, I request you to write suggestions and comments in this blog. You are also most welcome to become the follower of this blog so that I can update you about the blog regularly. Thank you. God bless. My other two blogs are:
www.brhectorsgeoworld.blogspot.com
www.brhectorsworld.blogspot.com

Saturday, November 7, 2009

ANSWERS FOR THE UNIT TEST-NOV 6

UNIT TEST

CLASS X

NOV 6

ANSWERS


1. Which is the largest mineral-based industry in India? Why is it called a key or basic industry?

The largest mineral-based industry in India is Iron and Steel Industry. It is called a basic or a key to other industries because many other industries depend on this.

2. Name four centres of this industry in the public sector concentrated in a single geographical region. With whose collaboration was each one of them set up?

Four centres of this industry in the public sector concentrated in a single geographical region are:

i. Bhilai Steel Plant (Russian Collaboration)

ii. Rourkela Plant (German Collaboration)

iii. Durgapur Plant (British Collaboration)

iv. Bokaro Plant (Russian collaboration)

3. Why is this industry concentrated in the Chhota Nagpur region? Which is the oldest and the privately owned plant?

This industry is concentrated in the Chhota Nagpur region, because of easy availability of its three basic raw materials- coal, iron ore, limestone, manganese. The oldest and the privately owned plant is the Jamshedpur Steel Plant.

4. Name four large-scale industries dependent on this industry? List two important products of petro-chemical industry.

The four large-scale industries dependent on this industry are:

i. Automobile industry – cars, trucks, tractors, buses, etc

ii. Shipbuilding Industry

iii. Machines, tools, light and Heavy engineering industry.

iv. Agricultural tools-tractors, combine harvesters, pumps, etc.

The products of petro-chemical industry are plastics, drugs, naphtha, petroleum, menthol, synthetic fibres, L.P.G. and kerosene.

Tuesday, November 3, 2009

D8-NATURAL VEGETATION AND ANIMAL LIFE


NATURAL VEGETATION AND ANIMAL LIFE

Natural vegetation and animal life depend on climate, relief and soil. The diversity of India’s climate and relief have made natural vegetation and animal life interdependent on each other and they form a single ecosystem. This ecosystem has evolved through thousands of years. Indiscriminate meddling with this ecosystem causes harmful effects. Natural vegetation and animal life are also called flora and fauna respectively.

NATURAL VEGETATION

India has a wide variety of natural vegetation ranging from tropical evergreen forests to desert vegetation. The natural vegetation of India can be divided into six main types. They are : -
1) Tropical evergreen forests,
2) Tropical deciduous forests or Monsoon forests,
3)Tropical thorn and shrub forests,
4) Desert vegetation,
5) Mangrove forests and
6)Himalayan vegetation.

1) Tropical evergreen forests: This type of vegetation is found in areas where rainfall is above 250 cms and temperature ranges between 250C and 270C. Since the trees are always green they are called evergreen forests. The heavy rainfall, high temperature and humidity are responsible for the growth of these dense forests. The trees grow about 60 mts. high. The branches of trees form a canopy and prevent the sun's rays from reaching the ground. In India, most of these forests are found on the western side of the Western Ghats,in the North-Eastern hills and the Andaman and Nicobar islands. The semievergreen forests are found in the lower rainfall areas of the Western Ghats, Orissa and West Bengal. Ebony, mahogany, rose-wood and rubber are the important trees. Bamboo bushes are also found.
2) Tropical deciduous forests: These forests are also called monsoon forests. They
cover a greater part of India. They are found in regions where the rainfall is between 75cms. and 250 cms. These forests are found on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, Jammu, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Bihar and Jharkhand. In these forests, the trees are fewer and shorter. Bamboos and canes are also grown here. The trees shed their leaves at the beginning of summer. The important trees of these forests are teak, sal and sandal-wood. They have great commercial value. The deciduous forests of Karnataka have sandal-wood trees. Wherever these forests are cut down or burnt, bushes and grass have taken their place.
3) Tropical thorn and shrub forests: These forests are found in the central parts of the Deccan Plateau, southern parts of Maharashtra, Bellary of Karnataka, Cuddapha and Kurnool of Andhra Pradesh, where the annual rainfall is between 60 and 75 cms. These forests have short stemmed trees like Babul andKasavi trees and coarse grass. Palms and kikar trees are also found here.
4) Desert vegetation: This type of vegetation is found in regions where the annual
rainfall is less than 50 cms. Rajasthan's Thar desert, the borders of Punjab, Haryana and Gujarat have this type of vegitation. The trees, which grow here have deep roots, thick leaves and thorns. Date palms are common near oasis. Babul, palms, wild dates and cactus are the important trees. Babul tree yields gum and its bark yields tanning material.
5) Mangrove forests: These forests are formed due to tides. They are found along the deltas and estuaries of rivers that are subjected to tides. Pendent roots (like those of Banyan tree) are the characteristics of mangrove forests. The deltas of rivers Ganges, Godavari, Mahanadi and Krishna have these forests. In the Ganges delta, there are plenty of Sundari trees and the forests are known as ‘Sunderbans’. These trees are used for making furniture and boats. These forests also yield firewood and tanning material. Canes, palms and "Kendale" trees are also found here.
6) Himalayan or Alpine vegetation: Different types of vegetation are found in the
Himalayan mountains. The vegetation changes with altitude and rainfall. The lower regions of the Himalayas have tropical evergreen forests upto 1,500 mts. Teak, sal and rose-wood are the important trees. Temperate forests are found between 1,500 to 3,650 mts. They are also called coniferous forests. The important trees of this vegetation are silver fir, oak, spruce, laurels, chestnut etc. Grasslands are found in altitude between 3,650 to 4,875 mts. Rhododendron, willow, juniper and primrose trees are found here. Flowering plants are found in Alpine meadows. During summer, at still higher altitude lichen and moss are found. Above 6,000 mts. the region is covered with snow and hence no vegetation is found.
IMPORTANCE OF FORESTS: Forests are a very important natural resource. They
provide raw materials to industries such as timber, bamboo, cane, gum, medicinal
plants, shrubs etc. They provide fodder to cattle. In addition to these benefits, there are other advantages which are of great importance. They are as follows:
1) Forests provide moisture and lower the temperature,
2) They prevent soil erosion and preserve the fertility of the soil,
3) Forests provide home for many animals and birds, thus preserving bio-diversity,
4) Forests help to preserve the ecological balance.
Forests are depleted due to large-scale cutting of trees due to industrial development, cultivation of crops, over-grazing by cattle, construction of railways and roadways, irrigation and power projects. This depletion of forests has resulted in floods and soil erosion. Due to increase in population, demand for forest products has increased. So, there is great need to protect forests. By planting more and more trees, we have to conserve forests.

CONSERVATION OF FORESTS: Forests are a natural gift to humankind. Human
beings first lived in forests. Destruction of forests results in soil erosion, floods, drought etc. Hence, realising the importance of forests, the Central Government has formed a national forest policy in 1952. It has a threefold plan namely:
1) Nationalisation of forest operations
2) Protection and operation of wild life and environment and social forestry
3) Commercialisation of industrial forest operation
Social forestry aims at not only providing enough firewood, fodder and other forest products but also to meet the requirements of ecological balance through large scale afforestation in community land and waste land. “Vanamohotsava” which was started in 1950, aims at planting thousands of seedlings during July and August. Thus it helps to preserve ecological balance.

WILD LIFE
India has a variety of wild life because of its varied relief features such as climate
and natural vegetation. There are about 80,000 species of wild animals, birds and
fishes. India has some rare animals which are not found in any other part of the world. eg. swamp deer, Chausinga (four-horn antelope), Kashmir stag, black buck and Neelgai. The spotted deer of India is very beautiful. Horned rhinoceros is found only in India and Nepal. Some of the carnivores animals such as lions, tigers and leopards are found in our forests. The Gir forests of Saurashtra is the natural habitat of lions. The famous Bengal tiger is found in the Sunderbans. The national animal of India is the Tiger. The Himalayas are the home of several interesting animals, like the wild sheep, yak, the mountain goats, the ibex, the shrew, the tapu, the panda and the snow leopard. Of the many species of monkeys, the languar is the most common.
India has a vaiety of bird life. The falcon (hawk), geese, mynahs, parrots, pigeons,
cranes, hornbills, sunbirds and kingfishers are found in forests and marshy lands. The Peacock is our national bird. Special efforts are made to protect the endangered species of wild life. National Parks and Wild Life Sanctuaries have been opened in order to preserve wild life. There are 73 national parks, 447 wild life sanctuaries and 17 tiger reserves. The Bandipur, Nagarahole and Bannerghatta National Parks are in Karnataka. These areas have become places of tourist interest.

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