Friday, June 12, 2009



•Indian agriculture – dominated by food crops which occupy 65% of the total cropped area of the country
•Contribute about 50% of the total value of agricultural production
•Grown throughout the country either as a sole crop or in combination with other crops.


•‘Cereals’ is a collective term for all kinds of grass-like plants, which have starchy, edible seeds.
•Most common cereals include rice, wheat, maize or corn, barley, rye, oats, millets and sorghum.
•Because of their easy cultivation, and their high nutritional value, they have formed the basic diet of mankind since the dawn of history.
•Often referred to as ‘the Staff of Life’.


•Rice is a grain belonging to the grass family. It is related to other grass plants such as wheat, oats and barley which produce grain for food and are known as cereals. Rice refers to two species (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) of grass, native to tropical and subtropical southeastern Asia and to Africa, which together provide more than one-fifth of the calories consumed by humans. The plant, which needs both warmth and moisture to grow, measures 2-6 feet tall and has long, flat, pointy leaves and stalk-bearing flowers which produce the grain known as rice. Rice is rich in genetic diversity, with thousands of varieties grown throughout the world. Throughout history rice has been one of man's most important foods. Today, this unique grain helps sustain two-thirds of the world's population. It is life for thousands of millions of people. It is deeply embedded in the cultural heritage of their societies. About four-fifths of the world's rice is produced by small-scale farmers and is consumed locally. Rice cultivation is the principal activity and source of income for about 100 million households in Asia and Africa.

So, rice is:
•Most important crop of India
•Supports half of the Indian population
•Staple food of people living in northeast & southern part of India
•Tropical as well as sub-tropical crop
•Versatile crop & can be grown in different parts of India
•Can be grown on different altitudes from the hill terrace of Kashmir to lowland areas of Kerala in South India
•As it can be grown under varying conditions, it has given rise to a large number of varieties, differing in quality
•Around 10,000 varieties of rice in world out of which about 4,000 types are grown in India

Rice Soils of India
Rice is grown in many regions across India. India alone has about 45 million hectares of area, and it produces on an average 93 million metric tons of rice since 2001 onwards. Rice cultivation has been carried into all regions having the necessary warmth and abundant moisture favorable to its growth, mainly subtropical rather than hot or cold.In India, rice is grown in different types of soils. Experts point out that in India, rice is grown in such varied soil conditions that it is difficult to point out the soil on which it cannot be grown. However, soils having
•Good water retention capacity.
•Good amount of clay and organic matter are considered ideal for rice cultivation.

•RICE – kharif crop in north India
•In south, it can be grown throughout the year if irrigation is possible
•3 types of rice grown in different parts of India

•Rice grown in well watered lowland plain areas is called wet or lowland rice
•Grown on low-lying regions
•Sown in June and harvested in October
•Requires plenty of water during the sowing and harvesting period
•The produce is used for local consumption as well as supplied to other regions
•Most of the rice grown in India belongs to the lowland variety


•Cultivation in which the hill slopes are cut into terraces

•The supply of water to hilly regions is not as much as on the plains, hence the rice grown in these hilly regions is called dry or upland rice
•Grown on mountainous/hilly regions
•Upland rice is sown in March-April and harvested in Sept-Oct
•This type of rice cultivation depends on the distribution of rainfall only
•Entire crop is used locally
•Q. write a short note on upland rice.

•Requires a mean annual temperature of 24 degree C with a range of 16 degree C to 32 degree C temperatures with about 16 degree C to 20 degree C during the growing season and 18 degree C to 32 degree C at the ripening stage. Needs plenty of sunshine
•Rainfall – 150cm to 300 cm , but much less is required if irrigation is available- needs flooded fields during the earlier part of its growing season – slight rain before ripening helps in increasing the size of the grain
•Soil – must consist of alluvial friable loams with claylike impervious subsoil. Such soils permit stagnation of water in the fields during the period of cultivation – soils need manure and fertilisers to produce a higher yield

Cheap, plentiful labour is necessary as most of the work is done by hand.

To sum up, its geographical requirements, the rice crop needs plenty of sunshine, heavy rainfall or irrigated deep alluvial clayey soil and plenty of labour to work on the fields, as most of the farming involves manual labour.
•Therefore the monsoon lands aere best suited for rice production or heavy irrigation is required
•Deltas, estuaries, floodplains, valleys of rivers and coastal plains with heavy soils provide excellent conditions for the cultivation of rice.

The systems of rice cultivation in various rice-growing areas of the country are largely dependent upon the rice-growing conditions prevalent in the respective regions.
•The method of cultivation of rice in a particular region depends largely on factors such as situation of land, type of soils, irrigation facilities, availability of labourers intensity and distribution of rainfalls.
•this method involves sowing the seeds by sprinkling them all over the field by hand.
•Prevalent in those regions where labour is scarce and soil is infertile
•This is done before the onset of monsoon.
• This method is generally used to sow inferior quality of seeds, hence yield is low.

•A dibble is an implement for making holes in the ground for seeds or plants
•In this method seeds are dropped at regular intervals in the furrows made by the farmers with the help of a plough

•While using the plough, seeds are dropped through a bamboo shaft attached to it, in the furrows made by the plough in a straight line.
•Advantage – seeds fall in the furrows in a systematic way.
•This method, though saving wastage of seeds , is very time consuming
•Mostly used in Tamil Nadu in peninsular India
•Sometime seeds are soaked in water for a few hours before sowing. It helps in quick germination especially where the soil is not moist enough

•This method is practiced in the areas of fertile soil, abundant rainfall, plenty of sunshine and plenty of supply of labour
•In this method, seeds are first sown in nurseries after soaking them in water for 24 hours
•After 4 weeks when the seedlings are about 20cm tall, they are uprooted and are planted in the flooded fields so that they can grow again.
•As this entire process is done by hand, a lot of manual labour is required. •It gives a higher yield

•Advantages of Transplantation:
1.Lot of labour is required which is easily available
2.When re-sowing the seeds are removed
3.There is less wastage of seeds as in broadcasting

•This method includes:
i.The use of less, but good quality seeds
ii.Sowing the seeds in raised nursery beds
iii.Transplanting the seedlings in rows to make weeding and fertilizing easy
iv.Involves much use of manure to obtain higher yield
v.Ensures three times higher yields, hence it has been successfully adopted by many rice cultivation regions in Asia.

The cultivation of rice begins by planting water-soaked seeds in a properly prepared bed. Oftentimes, the seedlings are transplanted to the paddy when they reach a certain size. When the grains begin to ripen, the water is drained from the fields. Harvesting begins when the grain yellow and the plants start to droop. Depending on the size of the operation and the amount of mechanization, rice is either harvested by hand or machine. Once harvested, the rice is usually dried in the fields with the help of sunshine
•In most of the regions of India, rice is grown twice or thrice, but in hilly regions only one crop is grown because of severe weather conditions.
•In northeast India, the primitive method of Jhooming (slash and burn) used to be practised for growing rice. But this method is wasteful and causes a lot of damage to soil, hence it is now forbidden

•Harvesting is done by hand
•The cut-crop is left in the field to dry for a period of about 3-4 days
•After that it is threshed and trampled by bullocks to separate the kernel from the seed – in some rural areas the sheaves are beaten against the bars across rounded wooden tubs so that the grain falls into the tub.

WINNOWING: is a process of removing the unwanted husk from the grains. It involves pouring the grains from a height on a windy day when the grains from a height on a windy day when the grains fall to the ground and the chaff is blown aside
•The rice is then sent for polishing. By polishing, the rice may look better, but important nutrients are lost in the process
•Hand pounded rice is thus considered better and more nutrious

•T.N. – produces 15% of total rice grown in India – largest producer of rice in India
•W. Bengal – second largest producer – harvesting 3 crops per year – in autumn, winter and summer
•Andhra Pradesh – 3rd rice producing state of the country
•Punjab – 4th rice producing at the moment- here 97% of the rice area is irrigated and due to higher input of High Yielding Variety seeds, fertilizers, mechanisation and finance per hectare yield is the highest
•Other rice growing areas – Bihar, Jharkand, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Karnataka, Assam, Maharasthra, Keral.
•Lesser producing states – Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, Gujarat and the Kashmir Valley

Dry or Semi-Dry Upland Cultivation
•The dry and semi-dry systems of cultivation are mainly confined to tracts which depend on rains and do not have supplementary irrigation facilities. The fields are ploughed and harrowed in summer for achieving the required-tilth. Farmyard manure is uniformly distributed 2-3 weeks before sowing. The seed is sown directly with the onset of the monsoon showers, either by
•Broadcasting the seed
•Sowing the seed behind the plough or drilling
•Line-sowing is preferable, as it ensures an adequate stand establishment and facilitates easy weeding and interculture. The reduced seed-rate requirement is another advantage. The row spacing may be suitably adjusted from 20 to 25 cm. Under the semi-dry system, the rain-water is impounded when the crop is about 1½-2 months old and thereafter it is converted into a wetland crop.By that time, major operations, such as weeding, interculturing and fertilizer application might have been completed. 'Beushening' still prevalent in Orissa and Madhya Pradesh under this system helps to control weeds and adjust population. The latest thinking is to promote line-sowing using a higher seed-rate so as to have a uniformly higher population density for effective competition from weeds and to use effective methods of interculture to solve the weed problem.
Wet or Lowland Cultivation
The wet system is practiced in areas with assured and adequate supply of water, either by way of rainfall or by irrigation.In Wet or Lowland Cultivation, the distinguishing factors are :
•Transplanting in puddled fields
•Broadcasting sprouted seeds in puddled fields
•Under Wet or Lowland Cultivation, the land is ploughed thoroughly and puddled with 3-5 cm of standing water in the field. The optimum depth of puddling is found to be around 10 cm in the clay and clay-loam types of soils. The primary objective is to obtain a soft seedbed fo
r the seedlings to establish themselves faster, to minimize the leaching losses of nutrients and thereby increase the availability of plant nutrients by achieving a reduced soil conditions which facilitates a better availability of nutrient elements, to incorporate the weeds and stubble into the soil and to minimize the weed problem. Puddling can be done with ploughs, tillers or tractors, depending upon their availability and soil conditions. The land is leveled after puddling to facilitate a uniform distribution of water and fertilizers.

1.What do you understand by dry farming?
The type of farming is being done in areas with scanty rainfalls and poor irrigation facilities is called dry farming.
2. What improved method of cultivation can help raise rice production in India?
The Japanese method of cultivation can help to raise the rice production in India.
3. Why are the flat low lands most suitable for rice cultivation? Or State the advantages of growing rice on low lands.
Since the cultivation of rice requires a lot of irrigation and a stagnant storage of water at its initiation. The flat low lands prevent water from draining away. Therefore, flat lowlands are most suitable for rice cultivation.
4. Name one area where rice is grown under ‘Jhumming’ method. Or name an area in India where rice is grown under ‘shifting cultivation’.
In North-East India, rice is grown under ‘Jhumming’ method.
5. State 3 methods of growin rice.
i)Drilling ii) Broadcasting iii) Dibbling
6. Name three leading rice-producing states.
West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu
7. What kind of soil is best suited for growing rice in India?
Rice thrives best on alluvial soil with a sub-soil of impervious clay and also in heavy loam.
8. Name a state in south India where rice is grown extensively?
Tamil Nadu


1. Why are yields in the Japanese method or rice cultivation higher than in other methods? Or Which is the latest method of rice cultivation and what are its advantages?
The yields of rice in the Japanese method of cultivation are higher than in other methods because of the following reasons:
i) The use of better quality seeds
ii) Seed are sown in raised nurseries
iii) Proper irrigation facilities are provided
iv) Transplanting is done in rows in suitable distances
v) Use of good quality fertilizers at the proper stage of growth.
vi) Heavy manuring of the crop both in the nursery and in the field.
vii) It gives three times higher yield.

2. With reference to rice, answer the following questions:a) What are the advantages of growing rice in nurseries?B) When is transplantation done and why is it popular?
a)The advantages of growing rice in nurseries are that the seed beds are well prepared and the surplus water can be drained out.
b)Transplantation is done about 5 or 6 weeks after the sowing of seeds..
Transplantation is popular since it increases the yields by about 45% and there is economical use of water.

3. Distinguish between Transplantation Method and the Japanese method of Rice Farming.

In transplantation method, first the seeds are sown in small and well prepared plots whereas in Japanese method, first the seeds are sown in already enriched and well-drained nursery beds.
In transplantation method, about 15 cm high sapplings are transplanted at regular intervals in another fields whereas in Japnese method, about 15cm to 20 cm high sapplings are transplanted in rows in another field.
In transplantation method, harvesting is carried out when ears are nearly ripe whereas in Japnese method, top-dressing with nitrogenous fertilizers is done before flowering of the plants.

4. State the conditions of soil and climate suitable for the cultivation of rice or What are the geographical conditions suitable for the cultivation of rice?
•Condition essential for cultivation of rice:
SOIL: Rice grows on alluvial soil with a sub-soil of impervious clay. It also grows well in heavy loam but sandy soil is not suitable for the cultivation of rice. The imperious sub-soil layer prevents water from draining away. Terraced hill-slopes are also suitable for the cultivation of rice.
CLIMATE: Rice requires abundant water for its growth. It can grow in areas where rainfall occurs between a range of 150 cm to 300 cm or there is proper irrigation facility. The farms need to be flooded during the first two weeks.
Rice also needs warm temperature for its proper growth which ranges between 16 degree C and 20 degree C during early stages and between 18 degree C during the ripening stage.

5. Name the state where rice is grown almost exclusively as a cash crop. What makes rice the staple food crop of India?
•Rice is grown as a cash crop in Punjab or Haryana. The reason that rice has become the staple food crop is, it is the leading cereal and has the advantage that it can be grown from Kashmir to Kerala due toits tropical climate. It is most widely grown crop and very easy to cultivate.


•Important food grain in India
•Staple food of millions of India – north and north-west parts of the country
•Rich in proteins, vitamins and carbohydrates and provides a balanced diet
•4th largest producer after Russia, USA, China
•Accounts 8.7% of world’s total production of wheat

•The cereal grass that has played a formative in the unfolding of india's history. Its importance can be gauged by the sustenance that it has provided to countless Indians in the past.
•Wheat cultivation has traditionally been dominated by the northern region of India. The northern states of Punjab and Haryana Plains in India have been prolific wheat producers.
•While this cereal grass has been studies carefully in the past, recent years of painstaking research by India's finest scientific talent has paid off with the development of distinctly superior varieties of Durum Wheat.
•hard wheat is cultivated in clayey soil and is highly sought after for its physical characteristics.
•Its high gluten strength and uniform golden colour makes it ideal for bread making and pasta preparation unlike the softer commercially high yielding wheat, which lacks the strength and consistency of durum.
•Today, India is exporting sufficient quantities of all types of wheat and extensive research efforts are underway for improving its cereals and grain output in the years to come.

•In the realm of food crops in the world, wheat (Triticum spp.) occupies the number one position. •India is one of the principal wheat producing and consuming countries in the world.
•Its importance in Indian agriculture is second to only rice.
•Wheat flour based products, such as the chapati, are part of the staple diet in most parts of India - particularly in northern India.
•Wheat straw is also used for feeding cattle.
•The Green Revolution, which was initiated in the country in the late 1960s, has had a very significant effect in increasing the yield of wheat.
•At present Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana are the three major wheat producing states. They account for nearly 70 per cent of the total wheat produced in the country.
•Though Uttar Pradesh has the highest production In India, it lags behind Punjab and Haryana in terms of yield. Better irrigation facilities in these states are responsible for higher yield.
•In Haryana, 98 per cent of the area under wheat is irrigated and in Punjab the ratio is 96 per cent.
•Wheat output in non-traditional states is also being popularised by improving irrigation facilities and developing seeds suitable for cultivation in these regions.
•This hard wheat is cultivated in clayey soil and is highly sought after for its physical characteristics. Its high gluten strength and uniform golden colour makes it ideal for bread making and pasta preparation unlike the softer commercially high yielding wheat, which lacks the strength and consistency of durum.
•Today, India is exporting sufficient quantities of all types of wheat and extensive research efforts are underway for improving its cereals and grain output in the years to come.
•With a production reaching ten times in past five years, India is today the second largest wheat producer in the whole world. India has the largest area in the world under wheat.· India produces about 65-75 million tons of wheat a year, which is about 35% of India's total food grain production of 210-212 million tons. · Since wheat and rice are grown in separate seasons, they do not compete for area. · Indian wheat is largely soft/medium hard, medium protein, bread wheat. India also produces around 1.5 million tons of durum wheat, mostly in central and western India, which is not segregated and marketed separately.

•Temperate crop - grown in winter and harvested in March/April – hence rabi crop
•Grows well on level plains, especially if the farming is mechanised
•In India, it is mainly grown in flat alluvial plains of north India.

•On the basis of geographical variations, two varieties of wheat are grown:
a.THE NORMAL BREED VARIETY: - is grown on irrigated lands where the soil is friable loam and clayey in nature – mostly grown in Punjab, Haryana, UP
b.HARDER VARIETY, MACARONI WHEAT: - grows well on clayey black soil in areas of high rainfall. – grown in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and western Andhra Pradesh

•Wheat is a rabi crop, grown in the winter season.
•Sowing of wheat takes place in October to December and harvesting is during February to May.
•The Indo-Gangetic plains in India is the most conducive area in India for growing wheat.
•The cool winters and the hot summer are the perfect condition for a good wheat crop.

•Well-drained, fertlie loams and clayey loams are considered to be ideal for wheat.
•Good crops of wheat have also been raised on sandy loams and the black soils.
•Mostly grown in Indo-Gangetic Plain
•Wheat is sown in winter immediately after rains, hence it is easy to prepare fields for sowing
•Deep soil provides much needed moisture to the wheat plants in early stages.
•Wheat also grown in black cotton soil in areas of Madhya Pradesh & Maharashtra – needs a lot of fertilizer to supplement the deficiency
• The seed used for sowing should have good germination capacity and should be healthy and free from seed borne diseases and seeds of weeds. Experts suggest sowing of certified obtained from a reliable seed agency.

üIs a crop of mid-latitudes (temperate regions)and requires a cool climate with moderate rainfall
üNeeds an average temperature between 10 degree C to 15 degree C at the time of sowing
üAs harvesting time approaches higher temperatures are required to help ripening. – but sudden rise of temperature is harmful
üIn India, winter temperature of north India provides more favourable conditions
üIn south and north-east, temperature conditions are above 20 degree C even in winter, hence wheat cannot be grown there
•Therefore it requires a combination of factors-
i)Cool climate with moderate rainfall
ii)Flat and well drained plain areas
iii)Fertile friable clayey loams
iv)Heavy inputs in the form of irrigation if required
v)High yielding variety seeds
vi)Good quality manure
vii)If possible, mechanised farming

•Needs 50 to 100 cm rainfall during growing season – too much rainfall harmful and too little parches the grain
•Irrigation is necessary where there is less than 50 cm of rainfall
•A little winter rain before ripening is ideal and helps in increasing the yield
•Frost at flowering time and hail storm at the time of ripening can cause heavy damage to the wheat crop

•For good and uniform germination, the wheat crop requires a well pulverised but compact seedbed
•Field is prepared by end of November and crops are harvested in March. Since the sowing is done following the rainy season, there is enough moisture in the soil to help it to grow in early stages
•It is also essential to do timely cultivation and conserve moisture.
•Seeds are sown by broadcasting, dibbling and drilling methods.
•Low temperature in Oct/Nov & winter rains by the westerly depressions are helpful for its growth


•The wheat crop is harvested when the grains harden and the straw becomes dry and brittle.
• The harvesting time varies from zone to zone and also depends whether the wheat is under irrigated or rainfed conditions.
•The rainfed crop reaches harvesting stage much earlier than the irrigated crop.
•However, the yields under the rainfed crops are much lower compared to the irrigated crop.
•Harvested before summer heat begins in March and grain hardens and straw becomes brittle
•Harvesting done by sickle and now by machines
•Warm and sunny weather helps in ripening or the crop
•Hailstorms, frost and rain at the time of harvesting are harmful
•A fungal disease called ‘Rust’ affects crop yield
•Research on this to produce rust resistant variety of wheat
•Wheat is grown on about 17% of the cropped land in India .

•Leading producers – Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Upper Ganga Basin
•Conditions suitable for growing of wheat in the above places are:
- temperature – 10 degree – 20 degree, Rainfall – 50 to 100cms,
- Soil – alloamy, aluvial soil, and it needs winter rainfall
•Uttar Pradesh- 34% of production
•UP, Punjab, Haryana put together – Granary of India
•Possible due to Green Revolution
•Supply of high yielding variety seeds, proper use of chemical fertilizers, an excellent irrigation system provided by a close network of canals and effective pest control measures have contributed significantly to the increase in wheat production.

1.In which part of the year is wheat grown in India?
during winter season
2. Why is wheat not grown in the eastern and in the extreme southern parts of India?
because the temperature in these area does not fall to the required level, as the temperature should not rise beyond 10 degree to 15 degree C for its proper growth.
3. Name any two states which are leading producers of wheat?
Punjab and Haryana
4. Why is the area under wheat cultivation going to be increased?
By the use of Green Revolution Technology, newly yielded wheats can survive in drought conditions also; i.e., has been able to survive wide fluctuations in rainfall.
5. What does HYV stand for?
HYV stands for ‘High Yielding Variety’.
6. Name the leading producer of wheat in India.
Uttar Pradesh – accounting for over 34% of the production
7. In which season is wheat sown and why?
Wheat is sown in winter season in the month of November because it is a rabi crop and can be successfully cultivated in temperate climatic conditions.
8. State 3 factors which make it possible to grow wheat in western UP?
i. Western U.P. receives rainfall between 22cm and 100 cm
ii. 3 c m to 7 cm of winter rainfall helps in producing a good harvest
iii. In Winter, the temperature falls to the suitable level.
9. In what important respects do the climatic conditions for wheat differ from those for rice?
Wheat grows in cool temperature while rice grows in warm temperature. Wheat needs a temperature of 10 degree C to 15 degree C during the growing season and 25 degree C to 28 degree C during the ripening stage while rice needs a temperature of 16 degree C to 20 degree C during the early growing status and 18 degree C to 32 degree C during the ripening stage.
Also, wheat requires rainfall ranging between 50 cm to 100 cm during the growing season while rice requires rainfall ranging between 150 cm to 300 cm.
10. State the climatic and soil conditions favourable for cultivation of wheat.
CLIMATE: Wheat grows properly in cool climate with moderate rainfall. It requires a needs a temperature of 10 degree C to 15 degree C during the growing season and 25 degree C to 28 degree C during the ripening stage.
Wheat requires rainfall ranging between 50 cm to 100 cm during the growing season. A little rain before ripening improve its quality.
SOIL: Wheat grows well on the loamy, clayey soil of the Ganga plain and the black soil of the Deccan Plateau. The crop yields better on heavy-textured soil containing a little amount of lime.
11. Briefly explain why the geographical conditions in Punjab are most suitable for growing wheat.
The geographical conditions in Punjab are most suitable for growing wheat as the temperature is suitable during growing season. Clayey soil of Punjab helps to grow soft variety of wheat which is suitable for bread.
Further, the winter shower in this region improve the quality of wheat
12. Give two natural and two man-made factors that help in the cultivation of wheat.
Two natural factors that help in the cultivation of wheat are:
* Fertile loamy clayey and black soil
* Cool climate with moderate rainfall
Two man-made factors that help in the cultivation of wheat are:
* use of nitrogenous fertilizers
* Use of high-yield seeds.
13. What are the requirements for the cultivation of wheat with reference to a) soil b) rainfall range?
SOIL: Clay loam soil or black cotton soils or alluvial soil or friable loam. The soil should be able to retain moisture.
14. Name the months when the kharif crops are sown and harvested.
The period of sowing of kharif crops is during June-July. The period of harvesting of karif crops is October-November.
15. Which are the two staple food crops of India? Name against each the agricultural season in which it is grown.
Rice and wheat. The agricultural season during which they are grown rice during Kharif and Wheat during Rabi season.
16. Name the months when the kharif crops are:
a) sown b) harvested
a) The period of sowing of kharif crops is June-July
b) The period of harvesting of kharif crops is October – November.

17. What is a Rabi crop? Is wheat a Rabi or Kharif crop? In which state of India is the largest amount of wheat grown? (2001)
A Rabi crop is a winter crop that is sown during October-November and harvested by March – April.
Wheat is a Rabi crop. Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of wheat.

PULSES (Rabi Crop)

•Important part of Indian diet
•Grown in rabi season.
•Pulses include a number of crops (dals) which provide much needed vegetable proteins to a large vegetarian population of India.
•Excellent forage (food for cattle) and grain concentrates in the feed of cattle.
• gram and tur – important pulses
•Other pulses – urad (black gram), moong (green gram), masoor (lentil), matar (peas) and moth
•Are good rotation crop for rice because of their high nitrate content which help to restore the fertility of soil.

JOWAR ( Rabi , Kharif crop)
•After wheat and rice, jowar most popular food
•Both rabi and kharif crop
•Medium regur, clayey black soils are suitable.
•Kharif jowar can be grown on light sandy soil where as rabi jowar is best grown on black regur soils.

•TEMPERATURE: - 26 degree to 33 degree C
•RAINFALL: 30 to 100 cms – cannot grow where rainfall exceeds 100cm
•Jowar is a rainfed crop of dry farming areas where irrigation is not used.
•Both excessive rains and drought conditions are harmful for the plant.
•USES: * for making roti
•Straw of the plant used as fodder for feeding cattle. – some areas it is raised only as cattle feed.
•AREAS: Maharastra – largest producer
•Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat

•Kharif crop
•Food crop and fodder for the cattle in drier parts of the country
•In certain areas it is used for thatching the roof.
•Sown as rotation or mixed crop
•Rotated mostly with cotton, jowar or ragi

•SOILS: can grow on variety of soils, from poor light-sandy toblack or red or gravelly soil of upland areas.
•CLIMATE: TEMPERATURE: ideal 25 to 35 degree C
•RAINFALL: grown well where rainfall is less than 100cm
•It is a rainfed crop and is seldom irrigated.
•Bright sunshine after light showers is very useful in early stages
USES: used as food crop, for making roti and fodder for cattle
AREAS: Rajashtan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana.
Rajasthan – largest producer

MAIZE (Rabi, Kharif)
used for food and fodder
•Its grain provides food and is used for obtaining starch and glucose
•Its stalk is used as fodder
•Tropical crop- known as corn
•Grown in kharif seas in most parts of India
•In Tamil Nadu, it is grown as a rabi crop before the onset of rainy winter season
•Can be grown in different altitudes from plains to the areas at 2500 m above sea level.
•Well drained plains – best suited for its growth
•SOILS: grows well on loamy soil rich in nitrogen
•CLIMATE: requires high temperatures ranging from 21 degree C to 27 degree C as it cannot survive frost at any stage of growth.
•Requires rainfall ranging between 50 to 100 cm during its growth. It needs cool and dry conditions during the ripening.
•AREAS: Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh – leading producers

1.In drilling method of farming, seeds are dropped through a bamboo shaft.
2.Rabi crops are sown in the cool winter season and harvested at the beginning of summer.
3. West Bengal is the largest producer of rice .
4. Transplantation is the sowing of seeds in nurseries.
5. Threshing is done by bullocks to spread the grains from chaff.
1.10 degree C to 15 degree c temperature required to grow wheat.
2. Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana produce 70% of total wheat.
3. A fungal disease called rust affects the wheat crop.
4. Wheat is a rabi crop.


abhishek said... i have read this chapter.....

spoorthy said...

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I hv found it eazy
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amulya said...

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simran said...

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l@v@ny said...

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